Findings

Like-minded

Kevin Lewis

November 13, 2010

Are Blacks and Latinos Responsible for the Passage of Proposition 8? Analyzing Voter Attitudes on California's Proposal to Ban Same-Sex Marriage in 2008

Marisa Abrajano
Political Research Quarterly, forthcoming

Abstract:
On November 4, 2008, the majority of California's electorate supported a ban on same-sex marriage. Anecdotal evidence attributes its passage to increased turnout among black and Latino voters. This article determines whether this was so; it also examines whether blacks and Latinos were more likely than whites to oppose same-sex marriage, even when accounting for religiosity and political attitudes. Had black and Latino turnout remained at the same level as in the 2004 presidential election, Proposition 8 would still have passed. Moreover, blacks were more likely to favor a ban on same-sex marriage when compared to whites.

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That's a Boy's Toy: Gender-Typed Knowledge in Toddlers as a Function of Mother's Marital Status

Julie Hupp, Jessi Smith, Jill Coleman & Amy Brunell
Journal of Genetic Psychology, October-December 2010, Pages 389-401

Abstract:
A child who is highly gender schematic readily uses gender when processing new information. In the current study, we examined whether and how family structure predicts a child's level of gender-typed knowledge (as assessed by a gender-stereotype sorting task) once the category of gender is in place (as assessed by a gender-labeling task). It was predicted that children from more "traditional" family structures (married mothers) would have more gender-typed knowledge compared to children from less traditional families (unmarried mothers). Moreover, we explored if this relationship would be related to, at least in part, the greater frequency of androgynous behaviors (i.e., both masculine and feminine household activities) an unmarried mother performs. Twenty-eight children (age 2 to 3) were tested at local childcare centers. The mother of each child reported her marital status as well as how often she engaged in stereotypically masculine and feminine behaviors. As expected, mothers' marital status was associated with children's level of gender-typed knowledge, such that children with unmarried mothers had less gender-typed knowledge, in part due to the unmarried mother's greater frequency of androgynous behaviors. Implications for children's acquisition of gender-related stereotypes and the possible benefit of having mothers model both masculine and feminine behaviors are discussed.

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Evaluating the Severity of Hate-motivated Violence: Intersectional Differences among LGBT Hate Crime Victims

Doug Meyer
Sociology, October 2010, Pages 980-995

Abstract:
This article employs an intersectional approach to examine the ways in which lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people evaluate the severity of hate-motivated violence. Previous studies of LGBT hate crime victims have typically focused on the psychological effects of violence. In contrast, this article explores the sociological components of hate crime by comparing the perceptions of poor and working-class LGBT people of colour with the perceptions of white, middle-class LGBT people. Data were collected from semi-structured, in-depth interviews, conducted in New York City, with 44 people who experienced anti-LGBT violence. Results indicate that middle-class white respondents were more likely than low-income people of colour to perceive their violent experiences as severe, even though the latter experienced more physical violence than the former. This finding suggests that the social position of LGBT people plays an instrumental role in structuring how they evaluate the severity of hate-motivated violence.

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Infants' Preferences for Toys, Colors, and Shapes: Sex Differences and Similarities

Vasanti Jadva, Melissa Hines & Susan Golombok
Archives of Sexual Behavior, December 2010, Pages 1261-1273

Abstract:
Girls and boys differ in their preferences for toys such as dolls and trucks. These sex differences are present in infants, are seen in non-human primates, and relate, in part, to prenatal androgen exposure. This evidence of inborn influences on sex-typed toy preferences has led to suggestions that object features, such as the color or the shape of toys, may be of intrinsically different interest to males and females. We used a preferential looking task to examine preferences for different toys, colors, and shapes in 120 infants, ages 12, 18, or 24 months. Girls looked at dolls significantly more than boys did and boys looked at cars significantly more than girls did, irrespective of color, particularly when brightness was controlled. These outcomes did not vary with age. There were no significant sex differences in infants' preferences for different colors or shapes. Instead, both girls and boys preferred reddish colors over blue and rounded over angular shapes. These findings augment prior evidence of sex-typed toy preferences in infants, but suggest that color and shape do not determine these sex differences. In fact, the direction of influence could be the opposite. Girls may learn to prefer pink, for instance, because the toys that they enjoy playing with are often colored pink. Regarding within sex differences, as opposed to differences between boys and girls, both boys and girls preferred dolls to cars at age 12-months. The preference of young boys for dolls over cars suggests that older boys' avoidance of dolls may be acquired. Similarly, the sex similarities in infants' preferences for colors and shapes suggest that any subsequent sex differences in these preferences may arise from socialization or cognitive gender development rather than inborn factors.

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The link between alcohol use and aggression toward sexual minorities: An event-based analysis

Dominic Parrott, Kathryn Gallagher, Wilson Vincent & Roger Bakeman
Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, September 2010, Pages 516-521

Abstract:
The current study used an event-based assessment approach to examine the day-to-day relationship between heterosexual men's alcohol consumption and perpetration of aggression toward sexual minorities. Participants were 199 heterosexual drinking men between the ages of 18-30 who completed (1) separate timeline followback interviews to assess alcohol use and aggression toward sexual minorities during the past year, and (2) written self-report measures of risk factors for aggression toward sexual minorities. Results indicated that aggression toward sexual minorities was twice as likely on a day when drinking was reported than on nondrinking days, with over 80% of alcohol-related aggressive acts perpetrated within the group context. Patterns of alcohol use (i.e., number of drinking days, mean drinks per drinking day, number of heavy drinking days) were not associated with perpetration after controlling for demographic variables and pertinent risk factors. Results suggest that it is the acute effects of alcohol, and not men's patterns of alcohol consumption, that facilitate aggression toward sexual minorities. More importantly, these data are the first to support an event-based link between alcohol use and aggression toward sexual minorities (or any minority group), and provide the impetus for future research to examine risk factors and mechanisms for intoxicated aggression toward sexual minorities and other stigmatized groups.

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Morality, Equality, or Locality: Analyzing the Determinants of Support for Same-sex Marriage

Susan Gaines & James Garand
Political Research Quarterly, September 2010, Pages 553-567

Abstract:
In this article, the authors develop a model in which they depict individuals' support for same-sex marriage as a function of several clusters of independent variables, including symbolic politics, moral and religious attitudes and attachments, feelings toward gays and lesbians, women's rights and gender roles, concern for minority and civil rights, demographic attributes, and the local context. Using data from the 2004 American National Election Studies survey and the U.S. Census, the authors find that attitudes toward same-sex marriage are a function of moral and religious considerations, attitudes toward gays and lesbians, and gender roles. They find little evidence that attitudes toward women's rights and civil rights for African Americans affect attitudes toward same-sex marriage. Finally, they find that contextual effects are limited only to those respondents who reside in counties with a very high percentage of same-sex partnered couples.

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Adolescents of the U.S. National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study: Sexual Orientation, Sexual Behavior, and Sexual Risk Exposure

Nanette Gartrell, Henny Bos & Naomi Goldberg
Archives of Sexual Behavior, forthcoming

Abstract:
This study assessed Kinsey self-ratings and lifetime sexual experiences of 17-year-olds whose lesbian mothers enrolled before these offspring were born in the longest-running, prospective study of same-sex parented families, with a 93% retention rate to date. Data for the current report were gathered through online questionnaires completed by 78 adolescent offspring (39 girls and 39 boys). The adolescents were asked if they had ever been abused and, if so, to specify by whom and the type of abuse (verbal, emotional, physical, or sexual). They were also asked to specify their sexual identity on the Kinsey scale, between exclusively heterosexual and exclusively homosexual. Lifetime sexual behavior was assessed through questions about heterosexual and same-sex contact, age of first sexual experience, contraception use, and pregnancy. The results revealed that there were no reports of physical or sexual victimization by a parent or other caregiver. Regarding sexual orientation, 18.9% of the adolescent girls and 2.7% of the adolescent boys self-rated in the bisexual spectrum, and 0% of girls and 5.4% of boys self-rated as predominantly-to-exclusively homosexual. When compared with age- and gender-matched adolescents of the National Survey of Family Growth, the study offspring were significantly older at the time of their first heterosexual contact, and the daughters of lesbian mothers were significantly more likely to have had same-sex contact. These findings suggest that adolescents reared in lesbian families are less likely than their peers to be victimized by a parent or other caregiver, and that daughters of lesbian mothers are more likely to engage in same-sex behavior and to identify as bisexual.

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Evidence Of Pro-Homosexual Bias In Social Science: Citation Rates And Research On Lesbian Parenting

Walter Schumm
Psychological Reports, April 2010, Pages 374-380

Abstract:
Three refereed journal articles concerning lesbian family life were identified and compared for content and methodological quality. The articles shared the same authors, same academic institution of origin, the same samples, similar dates of publication, and even the same journals. However, one article reported evidence less supportive of lesbian parenting while two articles reported evidence more supportive of lesbian parenting. Citation rates for the articles were compared. The supportive reports have been cited 28 to 37 times since their publication compared to only two citations for the less supportive report, in spite of its possibly better methodological qualities. The citation rate differences were statistically significant. Implications for this possible evidence of pro-homosexual bias in the social sciences are discussed.

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Interorientation interactions and impressions: Does the timing of disclosure of sexual orientation matter?

David Buck & Ashby Plant
Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, forthcoming

Abstract:
Unlike gender, race, or ethnicity, sexual orientation is not necessarily readily identifiable. The current work tests whether the timing of disclosure of sexual orientation influences reactions to intergroup interactions. Participants in two studies anticipated interacting with a partner for a study of first-time interactions. Prior to the interaction, they received information about the partner in the form of a prerecorded interview. During the interview the partner revealed his sexual orientation either early or late. Male participants whose partner disclosed as gay early in the interview responded with negative and avoidant responses to the upcoming interaction, formed more stereotypic impressions of the interaction partner, and reacted more aggressively toward the partner. Timing of disclosure by a straight partner did not influence responses. In addition, the negative responses toward the gay target who disclosed early were mediated by the stereotypicality of the impression the male participants formed of their interaction partner. These results suggest a primacy effect for group categorization such that greater levels of bias occur when group categorization occurs prior to the receipt of individuating information.

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Recalled Separation Anxiety and Gender Atypicality in Childhood: A Study of Canadian Heterosexual and Homosexual Men and Women

Doug VanderLaan, Laura Gothreau, Nancy Bartlett & Paul Vasey
Archives of Sexual Behavior, forthcoming

Abstract:
The current study tested the hypothesis that elevated childhood separation anxiety is associated with female-typical childhood behavior and identity by comparing retrospective reports of heterosexual and homosexual men and women (N = 399). Participants completed measures of recalled childhood separation anxiety and childhood gender-atypical behavior and identity. Heterosexual men reported significantly less childhood separation anxiety relative to all other groups. Childhood gender atypicality was significantly positively correlated with childhood separation anxiety among homosexual men, but not among members of other participant groups. Discussion focused on the implications of these findings for the proposed hypothesis as well as future directions for research examining the bases of developmental associations among sex, sexual orientation, gender atypicality, and childhood separation anxiety.

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Political and Sexual Attitudes Concerning Same-Sex Sexual Behavior

Fernando Cardoso
Sexuality & Culture, December 2010, Pages 306-326

Abstract:
This research is based upon interviews and questionnaire data from male "homosexuals" (n = 177), "bisexuals" or "bicurious" (n = 166), and "persistent heterosexuals" (n = 528) between 20 and 30 years of age from working and professional social classes in three countries: Brazil, Turkey and Thailand. The main goal is to compare cultural attitudes toward politics and sex, as well as the impact of social class ethos: slum duelers versus college students. In terms of politics, the greatest differences between cultures were found with Thais being less liberal in terms of religious attitudes and more conservative in terms of "marriage being a social duty for everybody." However, a greater number of Brazilians assume that "getting married and having children" is a personal goal. Brazilians are more family orientated followed by Thais and Turks. Brazilians also appear less clientelistic than Turks and Thais. In terms of sex, Turks and Brazilians are more liberal than Thais. Brazilians are also less gender stratified in terms of gender roles in sexuality. When social class was controlled, the more liberal participants, in terms of religion, amongst the working class, were the less willing to marry and have children. Although in both social classes the more liberal participants disagree that "everybody should get married", it is more correlated to the working than to the professional class. The prescription for social respect is less demanding on more liberal working class men who also receive more invitations for sex by other men. The more liberal the professional class participants are in terms of religion the less gender stratified they are in terms of sexual roles and the more they are negatively correlated with such statements as "homosexuals are more feminine" and "homosexual are more passive in sex". Working class participants as a whole are more family and clientelistic orientated, more liberal about sexuality, and are more gender stratified.

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Processes of Sexual Orientation Questioning Among Heterosexual Women

Elizabeth Morgan & Elisabeth Morgan Thompson
Journal of Sex Research, forthcoming

Abstract:
Because very little is known about heterosexual identity development, this study assesses and describes sexual orientation questioning processes of heterosexual-identified women and offers a comparison of these processes with those employed by their sexual-minority counterparts. Participants included 333 female college students (ages 18-23; M = 19.2): 228 participants primarily identified as "exclusively straight/heterosexual," and 105 participants indicated a sexual-minority identity. Sixty-seven percent of exclusively heterosexual respondents (n = 154) indicated having thought about or questioned their sexual orientation. The processes by which heterosexual participants described questioning their sexual orientation were coded for the presence of five emergent categories using an inductive thematic coding methodology. These five categories included unelaborated questioning (19%), other-sex experiences (16%), exposure to sexual minorities (26%), assessment of same-sex attraction (48%), and evaluations of same-sex behavior (26%). Several unifying and differentiating themes emerged between sexual orientation groups. Results from this study suggest that contemporary young women's heterosexuality is not necessarily an unexamined identity; indeed, the large majority of young women in this sample were deliberately identifying as heterosexual after contemplating alternative possibilities.

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Sex Typicality and Attractiveness in Childhood and Adulthood: Assessing their Relationships from Videos

Gerulf Rieger et al.
Archives of Sexual Behavior, forthcoming

Abstract:
Prior research suggests that sex typicality (especially femininity of females, but also masculinity of males) relates to perceptions of attractiveness, for both heterosexual and homosexual individuals. Using videos from childhood and adulthood, we investigated how different components of sex typicality contributed to this effect, whether the sex of the evaluator or of the target moderated the effect, and how the relationship of attractiveness with sex typicality varied across the lifespan. In Study 1, videos of 45 female and 50 male heterosexual and homosexual adult targets (ages 18-30 years) were judged by 56 female and 65 male heterosexual and homosexual raters (ages 18-30 years). Results suggested that both heterosexual men and lesbians viewed more feminine women as more attractive. Femininity of appearance was a primary contributor to this relationship. Masculinity was not related to men's attractiveness. Study 2 used similar methodology (44 male and 46 female heterosexual and homosexual targets and 22 male and 20 female heterosexual raters). Study 2 replicated results of Study 1. In addition, Study 2 included ratings of childhood videos of targets (ages 0-15). Results suggested that childhood femininity related to attractiveness of both young girls and young boys and that the relationship became stronger for girls as they got older. The impact of femininity on attractiveness may, therefore, depend on both targets' sex and their maturity.

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Why State Constitutions Differ in their Treatment of Same-Sex Marriage

Arthur Lupia, Yanna Krupnikov, Adam Seth Levine, Spencer Piston & Alexander Von Hagen-Jamar
Journal of Politics, October 2010, Pages 1222-1235

Abstract:
Some states treat a same-sex marriage as legally equivalent to a marriage between a man and a woman. Other states constitutionally prohibit legal recognition of same-sex marriages. In all states that have constitutional restrictions against same-sex marriage, the restrictions were passed by a popular vote. A rationale for allowing citizens to vote on constitutional amendments is to produce constitutional outcomes that reflect variations in attitudes across states. We reexamine the amendment-attitude relationship and find it to be weaker than expected. We then develop an alternate explanation that focuses on procedural variations in how states amend their constitutions. Explicitly integrating key institutional variations into an empirical model with attitudinal data yields an improved explanation of why the constitutions of states with similar public attitudes treat same-sex marriages so differently. Our findings have important implications for people who wish to understand and/or change the future status of same-sex couples in state constitutions.

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Limitations of the Contact Hypothesis: Heterogeneity in the Contact Effect on Attitudes toward Gay Rights

Sue Ann Skipworth, Andrew Garner & Bryan Dettrey
Politics & Policy, October 2010, Pages 887-906

Abstract:
An extensive and growing body of research has demonstrated that knowing someone who is gay, lesbian, or bisexual can substantially increase support for policies, such as same-sex marriage, that are designed to promote equal rights for gays. However, cognitive psychological theories and contemporary theories of public opinion also suggest that the effect of interpersonal contact could be highly contextual, facing limitations based on the context and prior beliefs or stereotypes of the contact situation. This article explores the limitations implied by these theories and tests for heterogeneity in the contact effect according to the individual's predispositions. We find considerable variability in the contact effect based on ideology, religion, culture, and other important political groups, such as white southern evangelicals. We conclude by considering the practical and policy implications of these limitations in the ability of interpersonal contact to generate support for same-sex marriage and other gay rights policies.

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Sex Categorization Among Preschool Children: Increasing Utilization of Sexually Dimorphic Cues

Kerri Johnson, Leah Lurye & Louis Tassinary
Child Development, September/October 2010, Pages 1346-1355

Abstract:
Two studies examined how children between ages 4 and 6 use body shape (i.e., the waist-to-hip-ratio [WHR]) for sex categorization. In Study 1 (N = 73), 5- and 6-year-olds, but not 4-year-olds, selected bodies with increasingly discrepant WHRs to be "most like a man" and "most like a woman." Similarly, sex category judgments made by 5- and 6-year-olds, but not 4-year-olds, varied with WHR. In Study 2 (N = 41), eye movements indicated the functional use of waist and hips in sex categorization. Visual scanning behavior predicted the degree of association between WHR and judgment. Collectively, these results suggest that the ability to exploit sexual dimorphism to compel categorization develops between the ages of 4 and 6. Implications for theories of gender development and psychological essentialism are discussed.

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Sexual Minority Women's Sexual Motivation Around the Time of Ovulation

Lisa Diamond & Kim Wallen
Archives of Sexual Behavior, forthcoming

Abstract:
We investigated whether motivation for same-sex sexual contact was related to mid-cycle peaks in estrogen levels (typically associated with ovulation) among women with consistent versus inconsistent patterns of same-sex sexuality. Twenty women (M age = 30 years), all of whom have been providing data on their sexual behavior and identities since 1995, completed daily diaries assessing sexual motivation and provided 10 days of salivary estrogen samples. During the 3 consecutive days on which estrogen levels peaked, women who had consistently identified as lesbian since 1995 (n = 5) showed increased motivation for sexual contact with women. This change in same-sex motivation was significantly smaller among women who consistently identified as bisexual (n = 7) and women who had given up their lesbian or bisexual identities at some point since 1995 (n = 8). Women who ascribed a role for "choice" in their same-sex sexuality also showed smaller increases in same-sex motivation. The findings suggest that women with consistent versus inconsistent patterns of same-sex sexuality might be experiencing different types of same-sex desires influenced by different factors.


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