Different from here
How Ethically Would Americans and Chinese Negotiate? The Effect of Intra-cultural Versus Inter-cultural Negotiations
Yu Yang, David De Cremer & Chao Wang
Journal of Business Ethics, October 2017, Pages 659–670
A growing body of research has started to examine how individuals from different countries may differ in their use of ethically questionable tactics during business negotiations. Whereas prior research focused on the main effect of the national culture or nationality of the negotiator, we add a new factor, which is the nationality of the counterpart. Looking at both these variables allows us to examine whether and how people may change their likelihood of using ethically questionable tactics in inter-cultural negotiations as opposed to intra-cultural ones. Results of an experiment (N = 810) show that overall, American participants were less likely than Chinese participants to use ethically questionable tactics in negotiations. However, American participants were more likely to use ethically questionable tactics, particularly those related to false promises and inappropriate information gathering, in inter-cultural negotiations with Chinese counterparts, than in intra-cultural negotiations with American counterparts. By contrast, Chinese participants were less likely to use ethically questionable tactics, particularly those related to false promises and attacking opponent’s network, in inter-cultural negotiations with American counterparts, than in intra-cultural negotiations with Chinese counterparts. Implications and future directions are discussed.
Do Females Always Generate Small Bubbles? Experimental Evidence from U.S. And China
Jianxin Wang, Daniel Houser & Hui Xu
George Mason University Working Paper, September 2017
We report data from double-auction experiments in China and the U.S. using groups of exclusively females, exclusively males and mixed gender participants. We find that female groups in China generate price bubbles statistically identical to those produced by exclusively male groups in both China and the U.S., all of which are significantly larger than the bubbles produced by exclusively female groups in the U.S. Our results suggest that gender differences in financial markets may be sensitive to culture.
Revisiting Gender Differences in Ultimatum Bargaining: Experimental Evidence from the US and China
Shuwen Li, Xiangdong Qin & Daniel Houser
George Mason University Working Paper, August 2017
We report results from a replication of Solnick (2001), which finds using an ultimatum game that, in relation to males, more is demanded from female proposers and less is offered to female responders. We conduct Solnick’s (2001) game using participants from a large US university and a large Chinese university. We find little evidence of gender differences across proposer and responder decisions in both locations. We do however find that, in comparison to Chinese participants, US proposers are more generous, while US responders are more demanding.
Peter Leeson & Paola Suarez
Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, December 2017, Pages 40-61
This paper develops and empirically tests a theory of the market for “child brides” — prepubescent girls whose parents marry them to adult men. We argue that parental preference for sons over daughters creates a supply of, and demand for, prepubescent brides in impoverished societies. Evidence from India, one of the most son-preferring and child-bride populous nations in the world, supports our theory’s predictions: stronger son preference is associated with the birth of more unwanted daughters, younger postpubescent-female age at marriage, and a higher incidence of prepubescent brides. Moreover, son preference has a stronger positive association with prepubescent brides where poverty is more extreme; prepubescent brides have lower quality husbands than postpubescent brides; and stronger son preference is associated with a higher ratio of traditional-marriage-aged males to females.
Global Evidence on Economic Preferences
Armin Falk et al.
NBER Working Paper, October 2017
This paper studies the global variation in economic preferences. For this purpose, we present the Global Preference Survey (GPS), an experimentally validated survey dataset of time preference, risk preference, positive and negative reciprocity, altruism, and trust from 80,000 individuals in 76 countries. The data reveal substantial heterogeneity in preferences across countries, but even larger within-country heterogeneity. Across individuals, preferences vary with age, gender, and cognitive ability, yet these relationships appear partly country specific. At the country level, the data reveal correlations between preferences and bio-geographic and cultural variables such as agricultural suitability, language structure, and religion. Variation in preferences is also correlated with economic outcomes and behaviors. Within countries and subnational regions, preferences are linked to individual savings decisions, labor market choices, and prosocial behaviors. Across countries, preferences vary with aggregate outcomes ranging from per capita income, to entrepreneurial activities, to the frequency of armed conflicts.
Dutch courage? Effects of acute alcohol consumption on self-ratings and observer ratings of foreign language skills
Fritz Renner et al.
Journal of Psychopharmacology, forthcoming
Methods: Fifty native German speakers who had recently learned Dutch were randomized to receive either a low dose of alcohol or a control beverage that contained no alcohol. Following the experimental manipulation, participants took part in a standardized discussion in Dutch with a blinded experimenter. The discussion was audio-recorded and foreign language skills were subsequently rated by two native Dutch speakers who were blind to the experimental condition (observer-rating). Participants also rated their own individual Dutch language skills during the discussion (self-rating).
Results: Participants who consumed alcohol had significantly better observer-ratings for their Dutch language, specifically better pronunciation, compared with those who did not consume alcohol. However, alcohol had no effect on self-ratings of Dutch language skills.
Pricing Revolution: From Abstract Expressionism to Pop Art
University of Chicago Working Paper, September 2017
Abstract Expressionism famously shifted the center of the advanced art world from Paris to New York. The triumph of Abstract Expressionism, and its subsequent abrupt decline in the face of Pop Art, are familiar tales in the literature of art history. Econometric analysis of evidence from auction markets now provides a basis for dating precisely the greatest innovations of the leading Abstract Expressionists, and of the leaders of the cohort that succeeded them. These data demonstrate how fundamentally each of these revolutions affected the nature of painting, by showing how greatly the creative life cycles of the experimental old masters of Abstract Expressionism differed from those of the conceptual young geniuses who followed them. The innovations of the Abstract Expressionists were based on extended experimentation, as they searched for novel visual images; Pop artists rejected this open-ended search for personal forms, and instead treated painting as the impersonal transcription of preconceived ideas. Accumulation of experience was critical for the Abstract Expressionists, who produced their most valuable art late in their lives, whereas lack of experience allowed the next generation the freedom to imagine radically new approaches, and they produced their most valuable art early in their careers.
Twin-killing in some traditional societies: An economic perspective
Andrés Marroquín & Colleen Haight
Journal of Bioeconomics, October 2017, Pages 261–279
Historically, some societies around the world killed newborn twins, though the practice was forsaken in the early twentieth century. Anthropologists have proposed different theses: (1) the delivery of twins occurred when the mother cheated on her husband, or committed a great sin, and killing the twins was the penalty, (2) twin-killing was done to assert that human beings were different from animals among which multiple births in the same delivery were seen, (3) twins brought a dilemma to the kinship structure of societies and to cope with it different rules were adopted, twin-killing being the extreme one, (4) twin-killing was a means to face resource stress. We argue that although those interpretations are useful, we can improve the understanding of that phenomenon by adding an identity economics model, where twins are a taboo. Identity economics helps us explain the persistence of the practice and its eventual decline. We make our case with examples from the Igbo of Nigeria.
Learning From Others: Selective Requests by 3-Year-Olds of Three Cultures
Tanya Broesch, Shoji Itakura & Philippe Rochat
Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, October 2017, Pages 1432-1441
Humans are unique in their propensity to intentionally instruct and subsequently learn a wide range of information from others. We investigated when and how young children become socially resourceful in using others’ expertise, and whether the early propensity to request for help varies across diverse societies. We tested and compared 44 two- to four-year-old children growing up in urban United States and Japan, and rural Canada. Children were faced with two experimenters who demonstrated different abilities (successful vs. unsuccessful) in a toy retrieving task. We measured children’s propensity to request for help and the relative selectivity of requests to one experimenter over another. Results show significant cross-cultural differences. U.S. children’s request behavior differed significantly from the other two societies on three of the four measures. Specifically, U.S. children requested more overall, whereas Japanese children ceased manipulation (“give up”), and Canadian children continued to try on their own. Only the U.S. children show clear selective requests to the successful experimenter. On the last measure (gaze behavior), the U.S. and Canadian children look more to the successful model during the test phase than the unsuccessful model. These findings have implications for social learning research as well as the generalizability of developmental science.
Altruism and Collectivism: An Exploratory Study in Four Cultures
Cross-Cultural Research, forthcoming
This exploratory study tries to interpret the results of a test of altruism among almost 200 children from four small-scale societies in Belize, Kenya, Nepal, and American Samoa. Samoan children and, to a lesser extent, Nepalese Newar children were altruistic in a dictator game test. We considered evidence that the four settlements varied according to a collectivistic dimension and that such collectivism may have strongly influenced responses to the test. Not only did test results correspond fully to degree of community collectivism across the four cultures (rank-order correlation coefficient = 1.00, p < .05, N = 4), but Samoan children also scored at the highest level across each age group from 3 to 9 years of age, and the Nepalese Newar participants scored at the second highest level at all ages. We posit that social and material conditions in Samoa and Nepal were likely sources of collectivism and, concomitantly, the strong altruistic tendencies but acknowledge that in exploratory research there will always be issues concerning interpretation.