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Tuesday, November 13, 2012

Level Playing Field

 

Gender in Jeopardy! Intonation Variation on a Television Game Show

Thomas Linneman
Gender & Society, forthcoming

Abstract:
Uptalk is the use of a rising, questioning intonation when making a statement, which has become quite prevalent in contemporary American speech. Women tend to use uptalk more frequently than men do, though the reasons behind this difference are contested. I use the popular game show Jeopardy! to study variation in the use of uptalk among the contestants' responses, and argue that uptalk is a key way in which gender is constructed through interaction. While overall, Jeopardy! contestants use uptalk 37 percent of the time, there is much variation in the use of uptalk. The typical purveyor of uptalk is white, young, and female. Men use uptalk more when surrounded by women contestants, and when correcting a woman contestant after she makes an incorrect response. Success on the show produces different results for men and women. The more successful a man is, the less likely he is to use uptalk; the more successful a woman is, the more likely she is to use uptalk.

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Assessing Stereotypes of Black and White Managers: A Diagnostic Ratio Approach

Caryn Block, Kerstin Aumann & Amy Chelin
Journal of Applied Social Psychology, forthcoming

Abstract:
This study investigated whether racial group membership is diagnostic in predicting the characteristics ascribed to managers. Scales were created to examine the work-relevant racial stereotypes of Black and White managers. Following the diagnostic ratio approach to assessing stereotypes, participants rated the likelihood that characteristics from each scale were descriptive of Black and White managers. We found that White managers were stereotyped as more competent, ambitious, and manipulative; whereas Black managers were stereotyped as more interpersonally skilled and less polished. Additionally, we examined whether success information would ameliorate the effects of these stereotypes. Once success information was made explicit, differences in the achievement-oriented scales (competence and ambition) were eliminated. However, differences in the social-oriented scales (interpersonally skilled, manipulative, unpolished) still persisted.

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Do Women Avoid Salary Negotiations? Evidence from a Large Scale Natural Field Experiment

Andreas Leibbrandt & John List
NBER Working Paper, November 2012

Abstract:
One explanation advanced for the persistent gender pay differences in labor markets is that women avoid salary negotiations. By using a natural field experiment that randomizes nearly 2,500 job-seekers into jobs that vary important details of the labor contract, we are able to observe both the nature of sorting and the extent of salary negotiations. We observe interesting data patterns. For example, we find that when there is no explicit statement that wages are negotiable, men are more likely to negotiate than women. However, when we explicitly mention the possibility that wages are negotiable, this difference disappears, and even tends to reverse. In terms of sorting, we find that men in contrast to women prefer job environments where the ‘rules of wage determination' are ambiguous. This leads to the gender gap being much more pronounced in jobs that leave negotiation of wage ambiguous.

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The reverse wage gap among educated White and Black women

Jonathan Fisher & Christina Houseworth
Journal of Economic Inequality, December 2012, Pages 449-470

Abstract:
Using the 2004 National Sample Survey of Registered Nurses and the 2004-2005 American Community Surveys, we estimate the Black-White wage gap among females with at least some college education. We find that Black female nurses earn 9% more at the mean and median than White female nurses, controlling for selection into nursing employment. Among K-12 teachers, Black females earn 7% more than White females at the median. There is no Black-White wage gap among all women with a bachelor's degree. Differences in opportunities for education and marriage between White and Black women may explain why highly educated Black females earn on par with highly educated White females.

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Cultural Differences in Face-ism: Male Politicians Have Bigger Heads in More Gender-Equal Cultures

Sara Konrath, Josephine Au & Laura Ramsey
Psychology of Women Quarterly, forthcoming

Abstract:
Women are visually depicted with lower facial prominence than men, with consequences for perceptions of their competence. The current study examines the relationship between the size of this "face-ism" bias (i.e., individual or micro-level sexism) and a number of gender inequality indicators (i.e., institutional or macro-level sexism) at the cross-cultural level. In one of the largest known face-ism databases to date, the authors used politicians' official online photographs as stimuli (N = 6,610) to explore how face-ism (as an example of individual-level sexism) covaries with institutional sexism across 25 cultures. The authors found that the face-ism bias was greater in cultures with lower levels of institutional gender inequality, demonstrating that institutional equality does not necessarily imply equality on the individual level. The authors offer a number of potential speculations for this mismatch. For example, it may be due to "postfeminist" backlash that occurs in response to decreases in level of institutional sexism or it may be due to different comparative processes that occur in more versus less gender-equal cultures. Implications for female politicians cross-culturally are discussed. The findings of our study provide empirical evidence to demonstrate how macro-level structural equalities could be related to individual and micro-level sexism, and how different levels of sexism might not necessarily be indicative of each other.

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Penalties and premiums: The impact of gender, marriage, and parenthood on faculty salaries in science, engineering and mathematics (SEM) and non-SEM fields

Kimberly Kelly & Linda Grant
Social Studies of Science, December 2012, Pages 869-896

Abstract:
The prevalence of gender wage gaps in academic work is well documented, but patterns of advantage or disadvantage linked to marital, motherhood, and fatherhood statuses have been less explored among college and university faculty. Drawing from a nationally representative sample of faculty in the US, we explore how the combined effects of marriage, children, and gender affect faculty salaries in science, engineering and mathematics (SEM) and non-SEM fields. We examine whether faculty members' productivity moderates these relationships and whether these effects vary between SEM and non-SEM faculty. Among SEM faculty, we also consider whether placement in specific disciplinary groups affects relationships between gender, marital and parental status, and salary. Our results show stronger support for fatherhood premiums than for consistent motherhood penalties. Although earnings are reduced for women in all fields relative to married fathers, disadvantages for married mothers in SEM disappear when controls for productivity are introduced. In contrast to patterns of motherhood penalties in the labor market overall, single childless women suffer the greatest penalties in pay in both SEM and non-SEM fields. Our results point to complex effects of family statuses on the maintenance of gender wage disparities in SEM and non-SEM disciplines, but married mothers do not emerge as the most disadvantaged group.

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Affirmative Action and University Fit: Evidence from Proposition 209

Peter Arcidiacono et al.
NBER Working Paper, November 2012

Abstract:
Proposition 209 banned using racial preferences in admissions at California's public colleges. We analyze unique data for all applicants and enrollees within the University of California (UC) system before and after Prop 209. After Prop 209, graduation rates of minorities increased by 4.4%. We characterize conditions required for better matching of students to campuses to account for this increase. We find that Prop 209 did improve matching and this improvement was important for the graduation gains experienced by less-prepared students. At the same time, better matching only explains about 20% of the overall graduation rate increase. Changes after Prop 209 in the selectivity of enrolled students explains 34-50% of the increase. Finally, it appears UC campuses responded to Prop 209 by doing more to help retain and graduate its students, which explains between 30-46% of the post-Prop 209 improvement in the graduation rate of minorities.

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Job Authority and Perceptions of Job Security: The Nexus by Race Among Men

George Wilson & Krysia Mossakowski
American Behavioral Scientist, November 2012, Pages 1509-1524

Abstract:
A benefit of attaining job authority is heightened perceptions of job security, though no research has examined whether (a) this benefit operates equally across racial groups; and (b) if it does not operate equally across racial groups, why not? Analyzing a combined 2004 and 2006 General Social Survey sample of men, we find - among those who have attained an "upper command" level of job authority - that workplace-based marginality (discriminatory allocation and evaluation practices) rather than dispositions (e.g., fatalism, mistrust) learned outside of the workplace account for lower levels of perceived security among African Americans and Latinos, relative to Whites. Additional sectoral analyses indicate that this pattern is especially pronounced in the private, but not public sector. Discussed are the implications of the findings for understanding racial inequality at privileged levels of the American workplace.

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Race and Gender Bias in Three Administrative Contexts: Impact on Work Assignments in State Supreme Courts

Robert Christensen, John Szmer & Justin Stritch
Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, October 2012, Pages 625-648

Abstract:
Do certain types of administrative processes better inhibit race and gender prejudices that may surface in the public workplace? We compare the effects of three distinct administrative settings on race, gender, and other biases in the workload assignments of state supreme court justices - important public policy making settings that have been understudied in public administration. In particular, we model the extent to which majority opinion-writing assignment processes exhibit prejudice in states that use randomized assignments, rotated assignments, or fully discretionary assignments, respectively. Our findings confirm that administrative process matters. We use theories of status characteristics and administrative oversight to explain the relationship between administrative context and workload assignment patterns. Based on data from all 50 states, we discover that prejudice exists but that certain administrative processes serve better than others to suppress race and gender biases.

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The Role of Ethnicity in Mexican American and Non-Hispanic White Students' Experience of Sexual Harassment

Lisa Kearney & Lucia Albino Gilbert
Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, November 2012, Pages 507-524

Abstract:
This study explored dimensions of a social phenomenon not often investigated among Mexican American college students, namely sexual harassment. Mexican American (n = 261) and non-Hispanic White female students (n = 111) from three southwestern universities responded to scales assessing experiences of sexually harassing behaviors, harassment tolerance, and perceptions of perpetrator power. Participants described how they responded to the most offensive of the sexually harassing behaviors experienced. Nearly 80% of participants reported experiencing more than one sexually harassing behavior and a large majority identified another student as the harasser. Mexican American students reported experiencing fewer sexually harassing behaviors than non-Hispanic Whites, attributed less power to perceived sexual harassers, and reported greater harassment tolerance. The study's findings are considered within the context of best educational practices and how universities can better assist students, staff, and faculty in understanding what constitutes sexual harassment and ways in which it can be reported and responded to on campus.

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Enduring Influence of Stereotypical Computer Science Role Models on Women's Academic Aspirations

Sapna Cheryan, Benjamin Drury & Marissa Vichayapai
Psychology of Women Quarterly, forthcoming

Abstract:
The current work examines whether a brief exposure to a computer science role model who fits stereotypes of computer scientists has a lasting influence on women's interest in the field. One-hundred undergraduate women who were not computer science majors met a female or male peer role model who embodied computer science stereotypes in appearance and stated interests or the same role model who did not embody these stereotypes. Participants and role models engaged in an interaction that lasted approximately 2 minutes. Interest in majoring in computer science was assessed following the interaction and 2 weeks later outside the laboratory. Results revealed that exposure to the stereotypical role model had both an immediate and an enduring negative effect on women's interest in computer science. Differences in interest at both times were mediated by women's reduced sense of belonging in computer science upon interacting with the stereotypical role model. Gender of the role model had no effect. Whether a potential role model conveys to women a sense of belonging in the field may matter more in recruiting women into computer science than gender of the role model. Long-term negative effects of exposure to computer scientists who fit current stereotypes in the media and elsewhere may help explain current gender disparities in computer science participation.

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Women's absence from news photos: The role of tabloid strategies at elite and non-elite newspapers

Jason Stanley
Media, Culture & Society, November 2012, Pages 979-998

Abstract:
In 1978, Gaye Tuchman pointed to women's ‘symbolic annihilation' from the public sphere as the media focused overwhelmingly on the activities of men. Has anything changed since then? This article presents findings from a longitudinal content analysis of 1252 news photos from two widely read American newspapers - one elite and one non-elite - between 1966 and 2006. Findings show that pictures of men dominated the news in both papers over this period. Nevertheless, women made more gains in the elite paper than in the non-elite paper. This article argues that these trends were the product of divergent paths towards tabloid journalism, where papers replace politics and business coverage with sports, entertainment, fashion, and lifestyle coverage. The elite paper expanded entertainment, fashion, and lifestyle coverage, where women show up just as often as men. The non-elite paper expanded sports coverage, where women are virtually absent.

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Who's to Blame? Attributions of Blame in Unsuccessful Mixed-Sex Work Teams

Michelle Haynes & Jason Lawrence
Basic and Applied Social Psychology, November/December 2012, Pages 558-564

Abstract:
This study examined how blame is attributed when mixed-sex teams produce unsuccessful work products. Participants read about a mixed-sex dyad that had worked together on a male sex-typed task and had an unsuccessful group outcome. We varied the information participants received about the performance on the group task. When the only performance information available was group-level feedback, participants attributed more blame to the female teammate than to the male teammate. However, when individual-level feedback was available, participants attributed more blame to the male teammate than the female teammate. Both theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

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Menstrual cycle and competitive bidding

Matthew Pearson & Burkhard Schipper
Games and Economic Behavior, forthcoming

Abstract:
In an experiment using two-bidder first-price sealed-bid auctions with symmetric independent private values and 400 participants, we collected information on the female participantsʼ menstrual cycles and the use of hormonal contraceptives. We find that naturally cycling women bid significantly higher than men and earn significantly lower profits than men except during the midcycle when fecundity is highest. We suggest an evolutionary hypothesis according to which women are predisposed by hormones to generally behave more riskily during their fecund phase of their menstrual cycle in order to increase the probability of conception, quality of offspring, and genetic variety. We also find that women on hormonal contraceptives bid significantly higher and earn substantially lower profits than men. This may be due to progestins contained in hormonal contraceptives or a selection effect. We discuss how our study differs from Chen, Katuščák, and Ozdenoren (2012).

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What Does it Take for Women Journalists to Gain Professional Recognition? Gender Disparities among Pulitzer Prize Winners, 1917-2010

Yong Volz & Francis Lee
Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, forthcoming

Abstract:
This article compares the characteristics of 814 female and male Pulitzer Prize winners from 1917 to 2010. Borrowing the "compensation model" from political science, this study shows that, when all winners are taken together, female winners were more likely to have a metropolitan upbringing, a journalism major, and a graduate degree. These differences manifest the logic of compensation: some forms of social capital can be important for female journalists to overcome gender disadvantage in competing for recognition. The compensational model, however, is historically contingent. In more recent years, women journalists no longer needed the compensational capital to boost their chances.

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Students' race and teachers' social support affect the positive feedback bias in public schools

Kent Harber et al.
Journal of Educational Psychology, November 2012, Pages 1149-1161

Abstract:
This research tested whether public school teachers display the positive feedback bias, wherein Whites give more praise and less criticism to minorities than to fellow Whites for equivalent work. It also tested whether teachers lacking in school-based social support (i.e., support from fellow teachers and school administrators) are more likely to display the positive bias and whether the positive feedback bias applies to Latinos as well as to Blacks. White middle school and high school teachers from 2 demographically distinct public school districts gave feedback on a poorly written essay supposedly authored by a Black, Latino, or White student. Teachers in the Black student condition showed the positive bias, but only if they lacked school-based social support. Teachers in the Latino student condition showed the positive bias regardless of school-based support. These results indicate that the positive feedback bias may contribute to the insufficient challenge that undermines minority students' academic achievement.

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Are admissions decisions based on family ties fairer than those that consider race? Social dominance orientation and attitudes toward legacy vs. affirmative action policies

Angélica Gutiérrez & Miguel Unzueta
Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, forthcoming

Abstract:
This paper tests the competing hypotheses that social dominance orientation (SDO) reflects a specific desire to protect ingroup interests vs. a general desire to maintain status hierarchies by examining attitudes toward hierarchy-enhancing (i.e., legacy) and hierarchy-attenuating (i.e., affirmative action) selection policies. Study 1 found that social dominance orientation (SDO) was positively related to support for legacy policies and negatively related to support for affirmative action. In a more direct test of the ingroup interest vs. general dominance hypotheses, Study 2 found that among Asian participants, SDO is negatively related to policy support when a legacy policy is perceived to benefit the ingroup (i.e., fellow Asians); however, when the policy is perceived to benefit the dominant group (i.e., Whites), SDO is positively related to support. In all, these findings suggest that attitudes toward selection policies depend not on their specific content or effects on the ingroup, but rather on their impact on status hierarchies.

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Changes in the Representation of Women and Minorities in Biomedical Careers

Samuel Myers & Kaye Husbands Fealing
Academic Medicine, November 2012, Pages 1525-1529

Purpose: To examine how efforts and policies to increase diversity affect the relative representation of women and of minority groups within medicine and related science fields.

Method: The authors of this report used data from the Current Population Survey March Supplement (a product of the U.S. Census Bureau and the Bureau of Labor Statistics that tracks race, ethnicity, and employment) to compute the representation ratios of persons employed in biology, chemistry, and medicine from 1968 to 2009 (inclusive). They derived the representation ratios by computing the ratio of the conditional probability that a member of a given group is employed in a specific skilled science field to the overall probability of employment in that field. Their analysis tested for differences in representation ratios among racial, gender, and ethnic groups and across time among those employed as biologists, chemists, and medical doctors.

Results: Representation ratios rose for white females, whose percentage increase in medicine was larger than for any other racial/ethnic group. The representation ratios fell for Hispanics in biology, chemistry, and medicine. The representation ratio rose for African Americans, whose highest percentage increase occurred in biology. Asian Americans, who had the highest representation ratios in all three disciplines, saw a decline in their relative representation in medicine.

Conclusions: The authors have demonstrated that all groups do not benefit equally from diversity initiatives and that competition across related fields can confound efforts to increase diversity in medicine.

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Calculus GPA and Math Identification as Moderators of Stereotype Threat in Highly Persistent Women

Julia Steinberg, Morris Okun & Leona Aiken
Basic and Applied Social Psychology, November/December 2012, Pages 534-543

Abstract:
The present research tested whether the effect of stereotype threat on calculus performance was moderated by calculus GPA and math identification in advanced undergraduate women majoring in science, technology, and engineering (STEM) fields. Women (n = 102) were randomly assigned to one of three conditions - stereotype threat, gender equivalence, or no mention (of gender). Confirming stereotype threat theory, at high levels of calculus GPA and math identification, women performed the worst in the stereotype threat condition, intermediate in the gender equivalence condition, and best in the no mention condition. Strategies to counter the inimical effects of stereotype threat are discussed.

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Educational Standardization and Gender Differences in Mathematics Achievement: A Comparative Study

Hanna Ayalon & Idit Livneh
Social Science Research, forthcoming

Abstract:
We argue that between-country variations in the gender gap in mathematics are related to the level of educational system standardization. In countries with standardized educational systems both genders are exposed to similar knowledge and are motivated to invest in studying mathematics, which leads to similar achievements. We hypothesize that national examinations and between-teacher uniformity in covering major mathematics topics are associated with a smaller gender gap in a country. Based on Trends of International Mathematical and Science Study (TIMSS) 2003, we use multilevel regression models to compare the link of these two factors to the gender gap in 32 countries, controlling for various country characteristics. The use of national examinations and less between-teacher instructional variation prove major factors in reducing the advantage of boys over girls in mathematics scores and in the odds of excelling. Factors representing gender stratification, often analyzed in comparative gender-gap research in mathematics, are at most marginal in respect of the gap.

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The romance of working together: Benefits of gender diversity on group performance in China

Yan Zhang & LiWen Hou
Human Relations, November 2012, Pages 1487-1508

Abstract:
The authors examine cross-cultural differences in the effects of gender diversity on group identification and performance using workgroups from American and Chinese firms. Nationality is found to moderate the relationship between gender diversity and group identification in that gender diversity associates more positively with group identification in Chinese workgroups than in American workgroups. Nationality does not moderate the gender diversity-group performance relationship: although the Chinese sample shows a positive association between gender diversity and group performance, the American sample shows no association. A second longitudinal study explores the mechanisms of relationship conflict and task conflict by which gender diversity benefits group performance in China. Results show that gender-diverse groups perform better than homogeneous groups by decreasing relationship conflict and task conflict. Future research directions and practical implications are discussed.

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Pay Equity in the States: An Analysis of the Gender-Pay Gap in the Public Sector

Catherine Reese & Barbara Warner
Review of Public Personnel Administration, December 2012, Pages 312-331

Abstract:
Has any gender-based pay adjustment made by the states in the past 25 years had an effect on women's relative pay? The authors utilize a panel set of EEO-4 data on public sector employment by state to investigate the pay of women relative to men for 1999-2005. The authors find that there is a significant difference in the relative pay of women employed in states that have had a major pay adjustment in female-dominated job classes upward at any time in the past quarter century. Utilizing GLS multiple regression to predict the relative pay gaps by state, the authors find that women are better paid relative to men in the public sector than the private. The authors also find that women are better paid relative to men in Elazar's traditionalistic states as opposed to individualistic and moralistic ones, which are usually credited with having more progressive public policies.

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The Gender Gap in Mathematics: Evidence from Low- and Middle-Income Countries

Prashant Bharadwaj et al.
NBER Working Paper, October 2012

Abstract:
We establish the presence of a gender gap in mathematics across many low- and middle-income countries using detailed, comparable test score data. Examining micro level data on school performance linked to household demographics we note that first, the gender gap appears to increase with age. Indeed, the gap nearly doubles when comparing 4th grade and 8th grade test scores. Second, we test whether commonly proposed explanations such as parental background and investments, unobserved ability, and classroom environment (including teacher gender) explain a substantial portion of the gap. While none of these explanations help in substantially explaining the gender gap we observe, we show that boys and girls differ significantly in perceptions about their own ability in math, conditional on math test scores. Girls are much more likely to state that they dislike math, or find math difficult compared to boys. We highlight differences in self-assessed ability as areas for future research that might lead to a better understanding of the gender gap in math.

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Are Disadvantaged and Underrepresented Minority Applicants More Likely to Apply to the Program in Medical Education-Health Equity?

Jacob Bailey & Lindia Willies-Jacobo
Academic Medicine, November 2012, Pages 1535-1539

Purpose: To determine whether underrepresented minority (URM) students and students from disadvantaged backgrounds were more likely to apply to a combined MD-master's degree program designed to train physician leaders in providing care to underserved communities.

Method: University of California, San Diego (UCSD), School of Medicine applications from the 2008-2010 incoming classes were analyzed. American Medical College Application Service and UCSD secondary application data were used to build a logistic regression model to determine which characteristics were most associated with applying to the MD-master's degree Program in Medical Education-Health Equity (PRIME-HEq).

Results: Of the total UCSD applications reviewed from disadvantaged students, 61.5% also applied to PRIME-HEq (319/519) compared with 23.5% of nondisadvantaged students (917/3,895, [chi]2 = 326.665, P <= .001). Of URM student applications, 55.6% also applied to PRIME-HEq (358/644) compared with 23.3% of non-URM students (878/3,770, [chi]2 = 284.654, P <= .001). Results of a backward stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that disadvantagedstatus was the greatest predictor of applying to PRIME-HEq (odds ratio = 3.15; 95% confidence interval = 2.50-3.966; P <= .001).

Conclusions: URM students and students from disadvantaged backgrounds were more likely to be interested in a curriculum designed to train them to work with underserved communities. These results suggest that PRIME-HEq, or similarly focused programs, may influence URM and disadvantaged students' application decisions.

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When Math Hurts: Math Anxiety Predicts Pain Network Activation in Anticipation of Doing Math

Ian Lyons & Sian Beilock
PLoS ONE, October 2012

Abstract:
Math can be difficult, and for those with high levels of mathematics-anxiety (HMAs), math is associated with tension, apprehension, and fear. But what underlies the feelings of dread effected by math anxiety? Are HMAs' feelings about math merely psychological epiphenomena, or is their anxiety grounded in simulation of a concrete, visceral sensation - such as pain - about which they have every right to feel anxious? We show that, when anticipating an upcoming math-task, the higher one's math anxiety, the more one increases activity in regions associated with visceral threat detection, and often the experience of pain itself (bilateral dorso-posterior insula). Interestingly, this relation was not seen during math performance, suggesting that it is not that math itself hurts; rather, the anticipation of math is painful. Our data suggest that pain network activation underlies the intuition that simply anticipating a dreaded event can feel painful. These results may also provide a potential neural mechanism to explain why HMAs tend to avoid math and math-related situations, which in turn can bias HMAs away from taking math classes or even entire math-related career paths.

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Superstars "like" me: The effect of role model similarity on performance under threat

David Marx & Sei Jin Ko
European Journal of Social Psychology, forthcoming

Abstract:
Past work has shown that in-group role models buffer stereotyped targets from stereotype threat. What is less clear is what makes an effective in-group role model. Accordingly, we conducted a study to examine whether increasing the similarity of in-group role models will enhance their effectiveness in stereotype threat situations. Female participants in this study were either exposed to a more or less similar (on the basis of school affiliation, life experiences, and interests) female job candidate who was either high or low in math competence. Afterwards, participants took a math exam under stereotype threat conditions. Results revealed that similarity moderated the effect of job candidate math competence: Female participants' math performance improved more after exposure to a more similar compared with a less similar, high math-competent candidate. No effects of similarity occurred for the low math-competent candidates. We further found that feelings of intimidation partially mediated the performance effects.

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Are Race, Ethnicity, and Medical School Affiliation Associated With NIH R01 Type 1 Award Probability for Physician Investigators?

Donna Ginther et al.
Academic Medicine, November 2012, Pages 1516-1524

Purpose: To analyze the relationship among National Institutes of Health (NIH) R01 Type 1 applicant degree, institution type, and race/ethnicity, and application award probability.

Method: The authors used 2000-2006 data from the NIH IMPAC II grants database and other sources to determine which individual and institutional characteristics of applicants may affect the probability of applications being awarded funding. They used descriptive statistics and probit models to estimate correlations between race/ethnicity, degree (MD or PhD), and institution type (medical school or other institution), and application award probability, controlling for a large set of observable characteristics.

Results: Applications from medical schools were significantly more likely than those from other institutions to receive funding, as were applications from MDs versus PhDs. Overall, applications from blacks and Asians were less likely than those from whites to be awarded funding; however, among applications from MDs at medical schools, there was no difference in funding probability between whites and Asians, and the difference between blacks and whites decreased to 7.8%. The inclusion of human subjects significantly decreased the likelihood of receiving funding.

Conclusions: Compared with applications from whites, applications from blacks have a lower probability of being awarded R01 Type 1 funding, regardless of the investigator's degree. However, funding probability is increased for applications with MD investigators and for those from medical schools. To some degree, these advantages combine so that applications from black MDs at medical schools have the smallest difference in funding probability compared with those from whites.

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2D:4D Asymmetry and Gender Differences in Academic Performance

John Nye et al.
PLoS ONE, October 2012

Abstract:
Exposure to prenatal androgens affects both future behavior and life choices. However, there is still relatively limited evidence on its effects on academic performance. Moreover, the predicted effect of exposure to prenatal testosterone (T) - which is inversely correlated with the relative length of the second to fourth finger lengths (2D:4D) - would seem to have ambiguous effects on academic achievement since traits like aggressiveness or risk-taking are not uniformly positive for success in school. We provide the first evidence of a non-linear, quadratic, relationship between 2D:4D and academic achievement using samples from Moscow and Manila. We also find that there is a gender differentiated link between various measures of academic achievement and measured digit ratios. These effects are different depending on the field of study, choice of achievement measure, and use of the right hand or left digit ratios. The results seem to be asymmetric between Moscow and Manila where the right (left) hand generates inverted-U (U-shaped) curves in Moscow while the pattern for hands reverses in Manila. Drawing from unusually large and detailed samples of university students in two countries not studied in the digit literature, our work is the first to have a large cross country comparison that includes two groups with very different ethnic compositions.

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Succeeding in the Face of Stereotype Threat: The Adaptive Role of Engagement Regulation

Jordan Leitner, James Jones & Eric Hehman
Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, forthcoming

Abstract:
Two experiments examined Engagement Regulation, the systematic increase or decrease of self-esteem engagement in a domain following positive or negative outcomes, respectively. We hypothesized that, under threat, more positive outcomes increase engagement, and greater engagement augments the influence of subsequent outcomes on self-esteem and performance. Female participants completed an initial math test, received bogus feedback, and then completed a second test. Results indicated that more positive feedback evoked greater engagement and that this relationship was strongest under stereotype threat (Study 1). Under stereotype threat, engagement interacted with subsequent feedback, such that greater engagement to positive feedback increased performance, but greater engagement to negative feedback decreased self-esteem and performance (Study 2). Together, these findings suggest that Engagement Regulation facilitates self-esteem maintenance and positive performance under stereotype threat.

By KEVIN LEWIS | 09:00:00 AM