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Tuesday, January 29, 2013

League of women

 

When Are Women More Effective Lawmakers Than Men?

Craig Volden, Alan Wiseman & Dana Wittmer
American Journal of Political Science, forthcoming

Abstract:
Previous scholarship has demonstrated that female lawmakers differ from their male counterparts by engaging more fully in consensus-building activities. We argue that this behavioral difference does not serve women equally well in all institutional settings. Contentious and partisan activities of male lawmakers may help them outperform women when in a polarized majority party. However, in the minority party, while men may choose to obstruct and delay, women continue to strive to build coalitions and bring about new policies. We find strong evidence that minority party women in the U.S. House of Representatives are better able to keep their sponsored bills alive through later stages of the legislative process than are minority party men, across the 93rd-110th Congresses (1973-2008). The opposite is true for majority party women, however, who counterbalance this lack of later success by introducing more legislation. Moreover, while the legislative style of minority party women has served them well consistently across the past four decades, majority party women have become less effective as Congress has become more polarized.

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Successful Female Leaders Empower Women's Behavior in Leadership Tasks

Ioana Latu et al.
Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, forthcoming

Abstract:
Women are less likely than men to be associated with leadership, and the awareness of this stereotype may undermine women's performance in leadership tasks. One way to circumvent this stereotype threat is to expose women to highly successful female role models. Although such exposures are known to decrease women's leadership aspirations and self-evaluations, it is currently unknown what the effects of role models are on actual behavior during a challenging leadership task. We investigated whether highly successful female role models empower women's behavior in a leadership task. In a virtual reality environment, 149 male and female students gave a public speech, while being subtly exposed to either a picture of Hillary Clinton, Angela Merkel, Bill Clinton, or no picture. We recorded the length of speeches as an objective measure of empowered behavior in a stressful leadership task. Perceived speech quality was also coded by independent raters. Women spoke less than men when a Bill Clinton picture or no picture was presented. This gender difference disappeared when a picture of Hillary Clinton or Angela Merkel was presented, with women showing a significant increase when exposed to a female role model compared to a male role model or no role models. Longer speaking times also translated into higher perceived speech quality for female participants. Empowered behavior also mediated the effects of female role models on women's self-evaluated performance. In sum, subtle exposures to highly successful female leaders inspired women's behavior and self-evaluations in stressful leadership tasks.

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The Impact of Attorney Gender on Decision Making in the United States Courts of Appeals

John Szmer et al.
Journal of Women, Politics & Policy, Winter 2013, Pages 72-100

Abstract:
Despite a growing recognition of the influence of gender in the policymaking arena, few scholars have studied the relationship between lawyer gender and decision making on appellate courts. This article examines this relationship in the context of the United States Courts of Appeals, where there have been a greater number of female judges for a longer period of time. The results of the analysis suggest that, in the average Courts of Appeals case, judges are generally more likely to side with female attorneys, even in the absence of a "women's issue." In addition, both male and female judges are equally supportive of female lawyers even when the circuit is not particularly gender diverse. However, circuit judges are less likely to support female attorneys in cases in which the circuit reverses the lower court, indicating a notable disadvantage for female advocates in the very cases in which advocacy might be most crucial at the circuit court level.

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Female Labor Supply: Why is the US Falling Behind?

Francine Blau & Lawrence Kahn
NBER Working Paper, January 2013

Abstract:
In 1990, the US had the sixth highest female labor participation rate among 22 OECD countries. By 2010, its rank had fallen to 17th. We find that the expansion of "family-friendly" policies including parental leave and part-time work entitlements in other OECD countries explains 28-29% of the decrease in US women's labor force participation relative to these other countries. However, these policies also appear to encourage part-time work and employment in lower level positions: US women are more likely than women in other countries to have full time jobs and to work as managers or professionals.

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A Sex Difference in Risk Taking and Promotions in Hierarchies: Evidence from Females in Legislatures

Dino Falaschetti
Journal of Law and Economics, August 2012, Pages 477-502

Abstract:
Scotchmer showed how a sex difference in risk taking can cause promotional patterns to differ across sexes, even if discrimination is absent and ability is identically distributed ex ante. In her model, (1) winner-take-all promotions favor risk-taking males, but (2) promoted females enjoy greater ability and (3) see this advantage depreciate with repeated play. I find persistent evidence for the first two implications in how the sex composition of national legislatures differs across electoral mechanisms (winner-take-all chambers employ a greater proportion of males) and in how reelection prospects for U.S. representatives differ by sex (females enjoy longer expected service in a winner-take-all chamber). Finally, while the data convey less information about the third implication, the results are difficult to rationalize in alternative models and can have important implications not only for affirmative action doctrines but also for corporate fiduciary duties.

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Objects Don't Object: Evidence That Self-Objectification Disrupts Women's Social Activism

Rachel Calogero
Psychological Science, forthcoming

Abstract:
Integrating system-justification and objectification theories, the research reported here broadens the scope of prior work on women's self-objectification to examine its system-justifying function. I investigated the relation of trait and state self-objectification to support for the gender status quo and engagement in gender-based social activism among U.S. college women. Study 1 established that greater trait self-objectification was related to more gender-specific system justification and less engagement in gender-based social activism. The data supported a mediational model in which gender-specific system justification mediated the link between trait self-objectification and social activism. Results from Study 2, in which self-objectification was situationally activated, confirmed the same mediational model. These findings suggest that trait and state self-objectification may be part of a wider pattern of system-justifying behavior that maintains gender inequality and thwarts women's pursuit of social justice.

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The Long Run Effects of High-School Class Gender Composition

Massimo Anelli & Giovanni Peri
NBER Working Paper, January 2013

Abstract:
The long run earnings and career potential of individuals are strongly affected by their education. Among college educated individuals, the choice of college major is a very important determinant of labor market outcomes. In most countries men and women exhibit significant differences in this choice which is responsible for a large portion of the gender gap in earnings. In this paper we analyze whether the gender composition of peers (classmates) in high school affects the choice of major and hence long run earning potential. We use a newly collected and unique dataset covering 30,000 Italian students graduated from high school between 1985 and 2005. We exploit the fact that students are assigned to classes whose gender composition, within a school over time, varies exogenously. Moreover we are able to control for family, cohort, teacher and school effects in assessing the effect of peer-gender ratio on outcomes. We find that the gender ratio of peers in high school significantly affected the choice of major. A larger share of same-sex peers increases the probability of choosing majors associated to high earning jobs (Economics/Business, Medicine, Engineering). For women we also find that a large percentage of female high school classmates increases their long run performance in college and their earnings.

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Rethinking Critical Mass in the Federal Appellate Courts

Laura Moyer
Journal of Women, Politics & Policy, Winter 2013, Pages 49-71

Abstract:
This article draws from critical mass studies of gender in other political institutions to inform an application to the US Courts of Appeals. The results demonstrate the utility of considering court-level aspects of diversity. As mixed-sex panels become more common within a circuit, both male and female judges increasingly support plaintiffs in civil rights claims, though the magnitude of the effect is larger for women. The presence of a female chief judge is also positively associated with pro-plaintiff decisions by men and women in sex discrimination cases.

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Mama Grizzlies Compete for Office

Ronnee Schreiber
New Political Science, Fall 2012, Pages 549-563

Abstract:
In the 2010 general elections, a record number of Republican women ran for, and won congressional seats. Many were also endorsed by the Tea Party and/or heralded by Sarah Palin as being "Mama Grizzlies." This election provides a unique opportunity to examine if ideological and partisan differences among women matter in terms of how they campaign for office. Did they behave any differently than their more liberal counterparts? Did they boast being endorsed by Palin and/or other Tea Party organizations? Did they invoke their gendered or "Mama Grizzly" status to appeal to voters? This study uses data gathered from ninety-two websites of women who ran for Congress in 2010. Overall, it is found that Republican women did not reference the Tea Party, nor embrace being "Mama Grizzlies." In addition, these candidates shied away from discussing their gendered identities and supporting "women's issues." Finally, there were few differences between Democratic and Republican women with regard to how they presented themselves via their websites. I conclude by discussing the implications of the claims they make (or not) about gender role norms, motherhood, and their fitness for office.

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Overwork and the Persistence of Gender Segregation in Occupations

Youngjoo Cha
Gender & Society, forthcoming

Abstract:
This study investigates whether the increasingly common trend of working long hours ("overwork") perpetuates gender segregation in occupations. While overwork is an expected norm in many male-dominated occupations, women, especially mothers, are structurally less able to meet this expectation because their time is subject to family demands more than is men's time. This study investigates whether the conflicting time demands of work and family increase attrition rates of mothers in male-dominated occupations, thereby reinforcing occupational segregation. Using longitudinal data drawn from the Survey of Income and Program Participation, I show that mothers are more likely to leave male-dominated occupations when they work 50 hours or more per week, but the same effect is not found for men or childless women. Results also show that overworking mothers are more likely to exit the labor force entirely, and this pattern is specific to male-dominated occupations. These findings demonstrate that the norm of overwork in male-dominated workplaces and the gender beliefs operating in the family combine to reinforce gender segregation of the labor market.

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Shocking Labor Supply: A Reassessment of the Role of World War II on U.S. Women's Labor Supply

Claudia Goldin & Claudia Olivetti
NBER Working Paper, January 2013

Abstract:
The most prominent feature of the female labor force across the past hundred years is its enormous growth. But many believe that the increase was discontinuous. Our purpose is to identify the short- and long-run impacts of WWII on the labor supply of women who were currently married in 1950 and 1960. We use mobilization rates for various groups of men (by age, race, fatherhood) to see whether there was a wartime impact. We find that an aggregate mobilization rate produces the largest and most robust impacts on both weeks worked and the labor force participation of married white (non-farm) women. The impact, moreover, was experienced primarily by women in the top half of the education distribution. Women who were married but without children during WWII were the group most impacted by the mobilization rate in 1950, although by 1960 WWII still influenced the labor supply decisions of them as well as those with children during WWII. We end the paper with a resolution between the watershed and revisionist views of the role of WWII on female labor supply.

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Gender Differences in Bargaining Outcomes: A Field Experiment on Discrimination

Marco Castillo et al.
Journal of Public Economics, forthcoming

Abstract:
Relying on a commonly used fixed-offer bargaining script we examine gender differences in bargaining outcomes in a highly competitive and frequently used market: the taxi market in Lima, Peru. Our bargaining script secures that only the seller can change prices and terminate negotiations, thus we are able to examine differences in the seller's entire path of negotiation and in the reservation price at which they are willing to trade. We find that male and female passengers who use the same bargaining script are not treated equally. Men face higher initial prices, final prices, and rejection rates. These differences are consistent with male drivers being more reluctant to give-in to demanding negotiations by male passengers, and with male passengers being perceived as having high valuations. To identify whether taste-based or statistical discrimination drives the inferior treatment of men we conduct an experiment where passengers send a signal on valuation before negotiating. The signal eliminates gender differences and the response is shown only to be consistent with statistical discrimination. Thus in the limiting case of a highly competitive market with experienced traders, we do not find evidence of taste-based discrimination, the differential observed is however consistent with statistical discrimination.

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Occupational stereotypes: Activation of male bias in a gender-neutral world

Karla Lassonde & Edward O'Brien
Journal of Applied Social Psychology, forthcoming

Abstract:
The goal of the present study was to determine whether gender-neutral language, used to replace male-biased language, carries an implicit male bias. Participants read passages in which a target occupation was introduced using either male-biased or gender-neutral nouns. A target sentence followed defining the gender of the occupational character. In Experiment 1, participants read target sentences defining the character as a woman more slowly following passages that contained male-biased nouns and gender-neutral nouns. In Experiment 2, an additional sentence was added that defined the occupational character as a woman. This information eliminated the reading disruption in Experiment 1 demonstrating that gender-neutral language can moderate against activation of gender stereotypes when combined with an explicit mention that the occupational character is female.

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When gender fits self-regulatory preferences: The impact of regulatory fit on gender-based ingroup favoritism

Kai Sassenberg et al.
Social Psychology, Winter 2013, Pages 4-15

Abstract:
Females are perceived to have less power than males. These differences in perceived power might render different self-regulatory strategies appropriate: Women should (as members of other low-power groups) care about security, whereas men should (as members of other high-power groups) strive for accomplishment. These regulatory implications of gender provide the basis for regulatory fit between individuals' gender and their regulatory focus. Higher fit should lead to stronger gender-based ingroup favoritism: Prevention-focused females and promotion-focused males were expected to show more ingroup favoritism than both sexes in the respective other regulatory focus. According to the regulatory fit hypothesis, this effect should occur for evaluative- but not for stereotype-based ingroup favoritism. Three studies supported these hypotheses.

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Economic Development and Gender Equality: Is There a Gender Kuznets Curve?

Joshua Eastin & Aseem Prakash
World Politics, January 2013, Pages 156-186

Abstract:
This research note examines the relationship between economic development and gender equality. Drawing on the concept of the Kuznets curve, the authors hypothesize that the relationship between economic development and gender inequality is curvilinear (S shaped), with three distinct stages. In the first stage, economic development improves gender equality because it enables greater female labor-force participation. An independent income stream increases women's intrahousehold bargaining power. The opportunity to develop human capital confers greater political and social recognition. In the second stage, labor-force stratification and gender discrimination encourage divergent male/female income trajectories, which decrease the opportunity costs of female labor-force withdrawal and lend traction to social resistance against burgeoning gender norms. Consequently, there is a deceleration in initial equality gains. In the final stage, gender equality again improves, as greater educational participation and technological advancement provide new employment opportunities for women, increase the opportunity costs of staying home, and encourage the evolution of new social institutions and norms that overcome prior discriminatory practices. The authors find support for this argument in statistical tests of the relationship between economic development and gender equality on a panel of 146 developing countries for the period 1980-2005. They employ four indicators that reflect distinct dimensions of women's political, social, and economic status. They find economic development positively influences gender equality when per capita incomes are below $8,000-$10,000. These equality gains level off or decline slightly in the second stage, from $8,000-10,000 to about $25,000-$30,000. Beyond this level, economic development is again associated with improvements in gender equality. The key implication is that the effect of economic development on gender equality is contingent on the level of development. Policymakers and social activists should develop policy correctives to ensure that economic development confers improvements in gender equality across phases of development.

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Why are women underrepresented amongst patentees?

Jennifer Hunt et al.
Research Policy, forthcoming

Abstract:
We investigate women's underrepresentation among holders of commercialized patents: only 5.5% of holders of such patents are female. Using the National Survey of College Graduates 2003, we find only 7% of the gap in patenting rates is accounted for by women's lower probability of holding any science or engineering degree, because women with such a degree are scarcely more likely to patent than women without. Differences among those without a science or engineering degree account for 15%, while 78% is accounted for by differences among those with a science or engineering degree. For the latter group, we find that women's underrepresentation in engineering and in jobs involving development and design explain much of the gap.

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Repairing the Damage: The Effect of Price Expectations on Auto-Repair Price Quotes

Meghan Busse, Ayelet Israeli & Florian Zettelmeyer
Northwestern University Working Paper, November 2012

Abstract:
We show that price expectations alter outcomes in a negotiated price environment. By experimentally manipulating the price expectations that consumers communicate to firms, we show that consumers' price expectations alter outcomes by directly changing firms' behavior. We implement a large-scale field experiment in which callers request price quotes from automotive repair shops. We find that repair shops quote higher prices if they know that the callers' perception of the market price is high. We find that women are quoted higher price than men when callers signal that they are uninformed about market prices. However, gender differences disappear when callers mention an expected price for the repair. Finally, we find that repair shops are more likely to offer a price concession if asked to do so by a woman than a man.

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The Gender of News and News of Gender: A Study of Sex, Politics, and Press Coverage of the 2010 British General Election

Karen Ross et al.
International Journal of Press/Politics, January 2013, Pages 3-20

Abstract:
In the months leading up to the 2010 British General Election, pundits were claiming that women would be specifically targeted by all political parties. However, this focus never materialized and it was just more business as usual but with the added novelty of televised leaders' debates, which meant that coverage was more male ordered than ever. The study on which this article is based monitored articles published in the four weeks leading up to election day across twelve newspapers, comprising a mix of dailies and weekend editions, broadsheets and midmarket, and tabloid titles. The study concentrated on articles that had the election as the main story and which mentioned or sourced one or more candidates, both MPs seeking reelection, and Parliamentary Candidates. We were interested in exploring (any) differences in the news coverage of women and men candidates, looking at both frequency and content. Our findings suggest that women were much less likely to feature in news stories than men, even when controlling for Party Leader coverage. Women were much more likely to be mentioned or quoted in feature articles focused explicitly on gender issues, made interesting because of their sex and couture rather than their political abilities and experience.

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The rules of the (leadership) game: Gender, politics and news

Karen Ross & Margie Comrie
Journalism, November 2012, Pages 969-984

Abstract:
The abiding interest of researchers to explore the nature of political communication continues to provoke lively debates about who controls the moveable feast of the news agenda - politicians or journalists. This article argues that despite journalistic claims of impartiality, a careful, multilayered analysis of print and broadcast news of a general election (New Zealand, 2008) and, more specifically, reportage about the leaders of the Labour Party (Helen Clark) and National Party (John Key) demonstrates clear bias against the long-serving (older female) incumbent in favour of the (younger male) challenger. This bias is manifest in several ways, including the visibility of the two leaders measured by column inches, their uses as quoted sources and the tone and tenor of reportage. Whilst we found few examples of explicitly sexist commentary, there were numerous ways in Clark's personal attributes, including her sex and age, were slyly used to undermine her continued suitability for the top job.

By KEVIN LEWIS | 09:00:00 AM