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Friday, February 20, 2015

Bad data

Concealing campus sexual assault: An empirical examination

Corey Rayburn Yung
Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, February 2015, Pages 1-9

Abstract:
This study tests whether there is substantial undercounting of sexual assault by universities. It compares the sexual assault data submitted by universities while being audited for Clery Act violations with the data from years before and after such audits. If schools report higher rates of sexual assault during times of higher regulatory scrutiny (audits), then that result would support the conclusion that universities are failing to accurately tally incidents of sexual assault during other time periods. The study finds that university reports of sexual assault increase by approximately 44% during the audit period. After the audit is completed, the reported sexual assault rates drop to levels statistically indistinguishable from the preaudit time frame. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that the ordinary practice of universities is to undercount incidents of sexual assault. Only during periods in which schools are audited do they appear to offer a more complete picture of sexual assault levels on campus. Further, the data indicate that the audits have no long-term effect on the reported levels of sexual assault, as those crime rates return to previous levels after the audit is completed. This last finding is supported even in instances when fines are issued for noncompliance. The study tests for a similar result with the tracked crimes of aggravated assault, robbery, and burglary, but reported crimes show no statistically significant differences before, during, or after audits. The results of the study point toward 2 broader conclusions directly relevant to policymaking in this area. First, greater financial and personnel resources should be allocated commensurate with the severity of the problem and not based solely on university reports of sexual assault levels. Second, the frequency of auditing should be increased, and statutorily capped fines should be raised to deter transgressors from continuing to undercount sexual violence. The Campus Accountability and Safety Act, presently before Congress, provides an important step in that direction.

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Does Public Transit Spread Crime? Evidence from Temporary Rail Station Closures

David Phillips & Danielle Sandler
Regional Science and Urban Economics, forthcoming

Abstract:
We test whether public transit access affects crime using a novel identification strategy based on temporary, maintenance-related closures of stations in the Washington, DC rail transit system. The closures generate plausibly exogenous variation in transit access across space and time, allowing us to test the popular notion that crime can be facilitated by public transit. Closing one station reduces crime by 5% in the vicinity of stations on the same train line. Most of this effect remains after controlling for decreased ridership, indicating that a decrease in the availability of victims does not drive most of our results. We find suggestive evidence that crime falls more at stations that tend to import crime, i.e. stations where perpetrators are less likely to live. We also see larger decreases at stations on the same line when the transit authority closes stations that tend to export crime. These heterogeneous effects suggest that the response of perpetrators to increased transportation costs contributes to the decrease in crime.

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The militarization of local law enforcement: Is race a factor?

Olugbenga Ajilore
Applied Economics Letters, forthcoming

Abstract:
Recent events have placed a spotlight on the increasing militarization of local law enforcement. While ample anecdotal evidence suggests a link between race and the militarization of police, empirical analysis has yet to be performed. In this study, I find that, conditional on crime rate, the presence of a large African-American population is negatively correlated to police acquisition of mine-resistant ambush protected (MRAP) vehicles. Conversely, greater residential segregation is positively correlated to MRAP procurement. This result highlights the problem with growing segregation, in suburbs as well as urban centres, in the United States.

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Drug Markets, Travel Distance, and Violence: Testing a Typology

Lallen Johnson
Crime & Delinquency, forthcoming

Abstract:
The factors complicating our understanding of the drugs and violence nexus include the role of community structure and subculture, and situational features of market exchanges. Reuter and MacCoun contribute to the latter by highlighting a typology of market violence. Using distance as a proxy for social ties, the four-market category typology suggests that the mixing of buyers and sellers from various distances has implications for the amount of violence expected to occur within them. This research performs a partial test of that typology using 5 years of arrest and incident data from the Philadelphia Police Department. Multilevel models reveal that compared with markets with local buyers and sellers, those characterized by lengthier travel patterns have significantly higher counts of violent incidents.

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The Parolee–Parole Officer Relationship as a Mediator of Criminal Justice Outcomes

Brandy Blasko et al.
Criminal Justice and Behavior, forthcoming

Abstract:
Although psychotherapy literature identifies the client–therapist relationship as a key factor contributing to client outcomes, few studies have examined whether relationship quality among corrections populations and supervising officers influences outcomes. This is surprising given that many criminal justice intervention models include quality of the client–practitioner relationship. Parolees enrolled in a six-site randomized clinical trial, where they were assigned to a parole officer–therapist–client collaborative intervention designed to improve relationship quality (n = 253) or supervision as usual (n = 227), were asked to rate relationship quality with their supervising officer. Results showed parolees assigned to the intervention endorsed significantly higher relationship ratings and demonstrated a lower violation rate than those assigned to the control group. Ratings of the parolee–parole officer relationship mediated the relationship between study condition and outcomes; better perceived relationship quality was associated with fewer drug use days and violations during the follow-up period, regardless of the study condition. Findings are discussed as they pertain to supervision relationships.

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A Randomized Clinical Trial of Family Therapy in Juvenile Drug Court

Gayle Dakof et al.
Journal of Family Psychology, forthcoming

Abstract:
The objective of this article is to examine the effectiveness of 2 theoretically different treatments delivered in juvenile drug court — family therapy represented by multidimensional family therapy (MDFT) and group-based treatment represented by adolescent group therapy (AGT) — on offending and substance use. Intent-to-treat sample included 112 youth enrolled in juvenile drug court (primarily male [88%], and Hispanic [59%] or African American [35%]), average age 16.1 years, randomly assigned to either family therapy (n = 55) or group therapy (n = 57). Participants were assessed at baseline and 6, 12, 18 and 24 months following baseline. During the drug court phase, youth in both treatments showed significant reduction in delinquency (average d = .51), externalizing symptoms (average d = 2.32), rearrests (average d = 1.22), and substance use (average d = 4.42). During the 24-month follow-up, family therapy evidenced greater maintenance of treatment gains than group-based treatment for externalizing symptoms (d = 0.39), commission of serious crimes (d = .38), and felony arrests (d = .96). There was no significant difference between the treatments with respect to substance use or misdemeanor arrests. The results suggest that family therapy enhances juvenile drug court outcomes beyond what can be achieved with a nonfamily based treatment, especially with respect to what is arguably the primary objective of juvenile drug courts: reducing criminal behavior and rearrests. More research is needed on the effectiveness of juvenile drug courts generally and on whether treatment type and family involvement influence outcomes.

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A Prospective Examination of Whether Childhood Sexual Abuse Predicts Subsequent Sexual Offending

Cathy Spatz Widom & Christina Massey
JAMA Pediatrics, January 2015, e143357

Objective: To empirically examine the commonly held belief that sexually abused children grow up to become sexual offenders and specialize in sex crimes.

Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study and archival records check included cases and control individuals originally from a metropolitan county in the Midwest. Children with substantiated cases of physical and sexual abuse and neglect (aged 0-11 years) were matched with children without such histories on the basis of age, sex, race/ethnicity, and approximate family social class (908 cases and 667 control individuals). Both groups were followed up into adulthood (mean age, 51 years). The court cases were from 1967 to 1971; the follow-up extended to 2013.

Results: Overall, individuals with histories of childhood abuse and neglect were at increased risk for being arrested for a sex crime compared with control individuals (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.17; 95% CI, 1.38-3.40), controlling for age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Specifically, individuals with histories of physical abuse (AOR, 2.06; 95% CI, 1.02-4.16) and neglect (AOR, 2.21; 95% CI, 1.39-3.51) were at significantly increased risk for arrest for sex offenses, whereas for sexual abuse, the AOR (2.13; 95% CI, 0.83-5.47) did not reach significance. Physically abused and neglected males (not females) were at increased risk and physically abused males also had a higher mean number of sex crime arrests compared with control individuals. The results did not provide support for sex crime specialization.

Conclusions and Relevance: The widespread belief that sexually abused children are uniquely at risk to become sex offenders was not supported by prospective empirical evidence. These new findings suggest that early intervention programs should target children with histories of physical abuse and neglect. They also indicate that existing policies and practices specifically directed at future risk for sex offending for sexually abused children may warrant reevaluation.

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The Minimum Legal Drinking Age and Crime

Christopher Carpenter & Carlos Dobkin
Review of Economics and Statistics, forthcoming

Abstract:
We use variation from the Minimum Legal Drinking Age (MLDA) to estimate the causal effect of access to alcohol on crime. Using a census of arrests in California and a regression discontinuity design, we find that individuals just over age 21 are 5.9 percent more likely to be arrested than individuals just under 21. This increase is mostly due to assaults, alcohol-related offenses, and nuisance crimes. These results suggest that policies that restrict access to alcohol have the potential to substantially reduce crime.

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Psychosocial and genetic risk markers for longitudinal trends in delinquency: An empirical assessment and practical discussion

Christopher Sullivan & Jamie Newsome
Criminal Justice Studies, Winter 2015, Pages 61-83

Abstract:
The increased use of biosocial perspectives in criminological research has expanded the scope of factors considered in understanding the etiology of adolescent antisocial behavior. At the same time, its practical utility for preventive and remedial intervention has not been examined to the same degree. Using a large, nationally representative sample of youth (N = 2573) and a series of latent growth curve models, this study examines the relative utility of a psychosocial risk composite and genetic indicators (DRD2, DRD4, DAT1, 5-HTTLPR, MAO-A) in predicting the onset and later developmental patterns of adolescent and early adult delinquency and criminal behavior. The results show that the psychosocial risk composite measure has significant effects on the latent growth factors, while the main and interactive effects of the genetic indicators do not. The subsequent discussion considers the practical implications of these empirical findings in the context of extant research and pinpoints some possible future applications of this area of research. It also identifies some parallel cases of translational criminology that may serve as indications of how this research might inform policy and practice going forward.

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Do fewer guns lead to less crime? Evidence from Australia

Benjamin Taylor & Jing Li
International Review of Law and Economics, June 2015, Pages 72–78

Abstract:
The 1996 National Firearms Agreement (NFA) in Australia introduced strict gun control laws and facilitated the buyback of over 650,000 firearms. While several studies have investigated the effect of the NFA on firearm deaths, none has looked at its impact on crimes. In this paper we adopt the difference-in-difference identification approach to examine the impacts of the NFA on crimes. We find that one and two years after the NFA was enacted, there were significant decreases in armed robbery and attempted murder relative to sexual assault, with weaker evidence in relation to unarmed robbery.

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Littering in context(s): Using a quasi-natural experiment to explore geographic influences on antisocial behavior

Russell Weaver
Applied Geography, February 2015, Pages 142–153

Abstract:
Social science literature suggests that neighborhood-based visual cues have substantive effects on individuals' littering behaviors. Experimental research on this topic typically alters the appearance of a selected public location, and then monitors changes in littering due to these tightly controlled esthetic changes. The general finding is that littering occurs more frequently in relatively disorderly settings. The current paper extends this work by testing whether or not the same finding holds in more “real life” situations, wherein the operative visual cues come directly from the environment rather than through experimental manipulation. Specifically, the paper empirically identifies two study sites that serve similar functions in their urban system, but that differ markedly in contextual features. At the first site (#1), visual cues include liquor stores, vacant structures, and a noisy interstate highway. Notable visual cues at site #2 are scenic vistas, well-maintained housing, and greenspaces. When the same quasi-natural littering experiment was conducted at both locations, the littering rate was significantly higher at site #1 compared to site #2 (after controlling for individual-level demographic attributes). This result adds value to the applied geography community, as it confirms that spatially-based attributes do influence individual behaviors in a manner consistent with controlled, comparatively acontextual experimental findings. Additionally, the results implicate policy strategies that might be useful for counteracting antisocial urban behavior.

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Marginal Structural Models: An Application to Incarceration and Marriage During Young Adulthood

Valerio Bacak & Edward Kennedy
Journal of Marriage and Family, February 2015, Pages 112–125

Abstract:
Advanced methods for panel data analysis are commonly used in research on family life and relationships, but the fundamental issue of simultaneous time-dependent confounding and mediation has received little attention. In this article the authors introduce inverse-probability-weighted estimation of marginal structural models, an approach to causal analysis that (unlike conventional regression modeling) appropriately adjusts for confounding variables on the causal pathway linking the treatment with the outcome. They discuss the need for marginal structural models in social science research and describe their estimation in detail. Substantively, the authors contribute to the ongoing debate on the effects of incarceration on marriage by applying a marginal structural model approach to panel data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (N = 4,781). In line with the increasing evidence on the collateral consequences of contact with the criminal justice system, the authors find that incarceration is associated with reduced chances of entering marriage.

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Wet Laws, Drinking Establishments, and Violent Crime

Mark Anderson, Benjamin Crost & Daniel Rees
University of Washington Working Paper, December 2014

Abstract:
Drawing on county-level data from Kansas for the period 1977-2011, we examine whether plausibly exogenous increases in the number of establishments licensed to sell alcohol by the drink are related to violent crime. During this period, 86 out of 105 counties in Kansas voted to legalize the sale of alcohol to the general public for on-premises consumption. We provide evidence that these counties experienced substantial increases in the total number of establishments with on-premises liquor licenses (e.g., bars and restaurants). Using legalization as an instrument, we show that a 10 percent increase in drinking establishments is associated with a 4 percent increase in violent crime. Reduced-form estimates suggest that legalizing the sale of alcohol to the general public for on-premises consumption is associated with an 11 percent increase in violent crime.

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Wrongful Convictions and the Punishment of Attempts

Murat Mungan
International Review of Law and Economics, June 2015, Pages 79–87

Abstract:
This article presents economic models of law enforcement where the punishment of attempts leads to an increased risk of wrongful convictions. Consideration of these risks weakens the case for punishing attempts. Specifically, attempts ought to be punished less frequently than suggested in previous literature, and even when the punishment of attempts is desirable, they typically ought to be punished less severely than accomplished crimes. Purely deterrence related rationales as well as rationales based on costs associated with wrongful convictions support this conclusion. The presence of wrongful conviction costs also implies that a degree of under-deterrence is optimal and that incomplete attempts ought to typically be punished less severely than complete attempts.

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The Effect of School Starting Age Policy on Crime: Evidence from U.S. Microdata

John McAdams
Economics of Education Review, forthcoming

Abstract:
Does school starting age policy have an impact on the propensity of individuals to commit crime as adults? Using microdata from the U.S. Census, we find that a higher school starting age cutoff leads to lower rates of incarceration among both those directly affected by the laws and those only indirectly affected. However, the reduction in incarceration among those directly affected is smaller in magnitude, implying that the delay itself was harmful with respect to crime outcomes. These findings provide further support for early childhood interventions influencing future criminal activity.

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Organized Crime and Business Subsidies: Where Does The Money Go?

Guglielmo Barone & Gaia Narciso
Journal of Urban Economics, March 2015, Pages 98–110

Abstract:
Business support policies are widespread in advanced countries, to foster employment and productivity. This paper analyses the role of organized crime in the allocation of public subsidies to businesses. We assemble an innovative data set on the Italian mafia at municipality level and test whether mafia-ridden municipalities receive a disproportionally higher amount of funds. We exploit exogenous variation at municipality level to instrument mafia activity and show that the presence of organized crime positively affects the probability of obtaining funding and the amount of public funds. Organized crime is also found to lead to episodes of corruption in the public administration sector. A series of robustness checks confirms the above findings.

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Racial Inequality, Ethnic Inequality, and the System Involvement of At-Risk Youth: Implications for the Racial Invariance and Latino Paradox Theses

Kevin Wright, Jillian Turanovic & Nancy Rodriguez
Justice Quarterly, forthcoming

Abstract:
Drawing from the inequality and crime, racial invariance, and Latino paradox literatures, the effects of inequality on youth reoffending are examined. Specifically, hierarchical logistic regression models are estimated to determine: (1) whether racial and ethnic inequality have similar contextual effects on the continued delinquent behavior of at-risk youth and (2) whether these effects are specific to black or Latino/a youth residing in Maricopa County, Arizona (N = 13,138). Findings suggest that racial inequality increases reoffending while ethnic inequality decreases reoffending. Additionally, Latino/a youth are less likely to reoffend in areas characterized by high income and racial inequality. Structural theories of crime should continue to account for the importance of culture and the resilient responses employed by Latinos/as living in criminogenic environments.

By KEVIN LEWIS | 09:00:00 AM

Thursday, February 19, 2015

Your reputation precedes you

The Impact of Intergroup Contact on Racial Attitudes and Revealed Preferences

Scott Carrell, Mark Hoekstra & James West
NBER Working Paper, February 2015

Abstract:
Understanding whether racial attitudes are malleable is critical for addressing the underlying causes of racial discrimination. We examine whether white males' stated attitudes and behavior toward African Americans change based on the number and type of black peers to whom they are exposed. To overcome selection bias, we exploit data from the U.S. Air Force Academy in which students are randomly assigned to peer groups. Results show significant evidence in favor of the contact hypothesis. White males are significantly affected by both the number (quantity) and aptitude (quality) of the black peers with whom they are exposed. Specifically, white men randomly assigned to higher-aptitude black peers report being more accepting of blacks in general and are more likely to match with a black roommate the following year after reassignment to a new peer group with a different set of black peers. We also find that, ceteris paribus, exposure to more black peers significantly increases the probability of a bi-racial roommate match.

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Political Ideology, Skin Tone, and the Psychology of Candidate Evaluations

Amy Lerman, Katherine McCabe & Meredith Sadin
Public Opinion Quarterly, Spring 2015, Pages 53-90

Abstract:
In this paper, we examine the role of political ideology in shaping black voters’ evaluations of political candidates’ race and skin tone. Our findings challenge simplistic notions of black preference for descriptive representation. Instead, we argue that race matters to how black Americans evaluate candidates for political office, but that it does so in combination with both candidates’ skin tone and voters’ ideology. Specifically, our data from a set of randomized experiments show that black conservative Democrats, relative to their more liberal copartisans, express a stronger preference for black candidates relative to white counterparts and prefer darker-skinned candidates relative to lighter-skinned ones. In exploring this result, we argue that conservative black Democrats, who are liberal economically but more socially conservative, use skin tone as a heuristic to help determine which candidate is most likely to match their party-atypical but race-typical political preferences. Thus, despite being less likely to support affirmative action policies, black conservatives are actually more prone to using race and skin tone heuristics in their evaluations of candidates for political office. These findings are substantively significant. As black voters have become much more ideologically diverse, their preferences with respect to candidate race and skin tone may have greater electoral consequences.

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White Colorism

Lance Hannon
Social Currents, March 2015, Pages 13-21

Abstract:
Perhaps reflecting a desire to emphasize the enduring power of rigidly constructed racial categories, sociology has tended to downplay the importance of within-category variation in skin tone. Similarly, in popular media, “colorism,” or discrimination based on skin lightness, is rarely mentioned. When colorism is discussed, it is almost exclusively framed in terms of intraracial “black-on-black” discrimination. In line with arguments highlighting the centrality of white racism, the present paper contends that it is important for researchers to give unique attention to white colorism. Using data from the 2012 American National Election Study, an example is presented on white interviewers’ perceptions of minority respondent skin tone and intelligence (N = 223). Results from ordinal logistic regression analyses indicate that African American and Latino respondents with the lightest skin are several times more likely to be seen by whites as intelligent compared with those with the darkest skin. The article concludes that a full accounting of white hegemony requires an acknowledgment of both white racism and white colorism.

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Entitativity and intergroup bias: How belonging to a cohesive group allows people to express their prejudices

Daniel Effron & Eric Knowles
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, February 2015, Pages 234-253

Abstract:
We propose that people treat prejudice as more legitimate when it seems rationalistic — that is, linked to a group’s pursuit of collective interests. Groups that appear to be coherent and unified wholes (entitative groups) are most likely to have such interests. We thus predicted that belonging to an entitative group licenses people to express prejudice against outgroups. Support for this idea came from 3 correlational studies and 5 experiments examining racial, national, and religious prejudice. The first 4 studies found that prejudice and discrimination seemed more socially acceptable to third parties when committed by members of highly entitative groups, because people could more easily explain entitative groups’ biases as a defense of collective interests. Moreover, ingroup entitativity only lent legitimacy to outgroup prejudice when an interests-based explanation was plausible — namely, when the outgroup could possibly threaten the ingroup’s interests. The last 4 studies found that people were more willing to express private prejudices when they perceived themselves as belonging to an entitative group. Participants’ perceptions of their own race’s entitativity were associated with a greater tendency to give explicit voice to their implicit prejudice against other races. Furthermore, experimentally raising participants’ perceptions of ingroup entitativity increased explicit expressions of outgroup prejudice, particularly among people most likely to privately harbor such prejudices (i.e., highly identified group members). Together, these findings demonstrate that entitativity can lend a veneer of legitimacy to prejudice and disinhibit its expression. We discuss implications for intergroup relations and shifting national demographics.

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Germs and the out-group: Chronic and situational disease concerns affect intergroup categorization

Anastasia Makhanova, Saul Miller & Jon Maner
Evolutionary Behavioral Sciences, January 2015, Pages 8-19

Abstract:
Throughout human evolutionary history, members of unfamiliar out-groups are likely to have posed significant disease threats. The current studies assessed whether concerns about disease would bias people toward categorizing social targets as members of an unfamiliar out-group. Using a minimal group paradigm, 2 experiments assessed the extent to which perceivers categorized neutral targets and those displaying heuristic disease cues as members of the in-group versus the out-group. A bias toward categorizing targets with heuristic disease cues (but not neutral targets) as members of the novel out-group was observed among people high in chronic germ aversion and among those for whom disease threat had been experimentally primed. Consistent with theories emphasizing the pernicious dangers potentially posed by out-group pathogens, this bias was strongest if the targets were also a part of a racial out-group. Findings suggest a fundamental link between disease avoidance processes and biases in intergroup cognition.

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The impact of men's magazines on adolescent boys' objectification and courtship beliefs

Monique Ward, Laura Vandenbosch & Steven Eggermont
Journal of Adolescence, February 2015, Pages 49–58

Abstract:
Although much attention concerning the potential impact of sexualized media has focused on girls and women, less is known about how this content effects boys' perceptions of women and courtship. Accordingly, the current three-wave panel study investigated whether exposure to sexualizing magazines predicts adolescent boys' (N = 592) sexually objectifying notions of women and their beliefs about feminine courtship strategies. The results indicated that when boys consumed sexualizing magazines more often, they expressed more gender-stereotypical beliefs about feminine courtship strategies over time. This association was mediated by boys' objectification of women. The possibility of a reciprocal relation whereby beliefs about courtship strategies predict future consumption of sexualizing magazines was also explored but received no support. Discussion focuses on effects of sexualizing media on boys, and supports future research to build on multidisciplinary knowledge.

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The Influence of Sexual Music Videos on Adolescents’ Misogynistic Beliefs: The Role of Video Content, Gender, and Affective Engagement

Johanna van Oosten, Jochen Peter & Patti Valkenburg
Communication Research, forthcoming

Abstract:
Research on how sexual music videos affect beliefs related to sexual aggression is rare and has not differentiated between the effects of music videos by male and female artists. Moreover, little is known about the affective processes that underlie the effects of sexual music videos. Using data from a nationally representative three-wave panel survey among 1,204 Dutch adolescents, structural equation modeling showed that viewing sexual music videos by male artists increased the acceptance of female token resistance (i.e., the notion that women say “no” to sex when they actually mean “yes”) among adolescent girls, but not adolescent boys. Furthermore, viewing sexual music videos by male artists influenced girls’ acceptance of token resistance indirectly via affective engagement. The findings suggest that effects of sexual music videos on stereotypical sexual beliefs depend on the specific type of music video and viewers’ gender, and can be partly explained by viewers’ affective engagement.

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Stereotypic vision: How stereotypes disambiguate visual stimuli

Joshua Correll et al.
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, February 2015, Pages 219-233

Abstract:
Three studies examined how participants use race to disambiguate visual stimuli. Participants performed a first-person-shooter task in which Black and White targets appeared holding either a gun or an innocuous object (e.g., a wallet). In Study 1, diffusion analysis (Ratcliff, 1978) showed that participants rapidly acquired information about a gun when it appeared in the hands of a Black target, and about an innocuous object in the hands of a White target. For counterstereotypic pairings (armed Whites, unarmed Blacks), participants acquired information more slowly. In Study 2, eye tracking showed that participants relied on more ambiguous information (measured by visual angle from fovea) when responding to stereotypic targets; for counterstereotypic targets, they achieved greater clarity before responding. In Study 3, participants were briefly exposed to targets (limiting access to visual information) but had unlimited time to respond. In spite of their slow, deliberative responses, they showed racial bias. This pattern is inconsistent with control failure and suggests that stereotypes influenced identification of the object. All 3 studies show that race affects visual processing by supplementing objective information.

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Genetic counselors’ implicit racial attitudes and their relationship to communication

Kendra Schaa et al.
Health Psychology, February 2015, Pages 111-119

Objective: Implicit racial attitudes are thought to shape interpersonal interactions and may contribute to health-care disparities. This study explored the relationship between genetic counselors’ implicit racial attitudes and their communication during simulated genetic counseling sessions.

Method: A nationally representative sample of genetic counselors completed a web-based survey that included the Race Implicit Association Test (IAT; Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998; Cooper et al., 2012). A subset of these counselors (n = 67) had participated in an earlier study in which they were video recorded counseling Black, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic White SCs about their prenatal or cancer risks. The counselors’ IAT scores were related to their session communications through robust regression modeling.

Results: Genetic counselors showed a moderate to strong pro-White bias on the Race IAT (M = 0.41, SD = 0.35). Counselors with stronger pro-White bias were rated as displaying lower levels of positive affect (p < .05) and tended to use less emotionally responsive communication (p < .10) when counseling minority SCs. When counseling White SCs, pro-White bias was associated with lower levels of verbal dominance during sessions (p < .10). Stronger pro-White bias was also associated with more positive ratings of counselors’ nonverbal effectiveness by White SCs.

Conclusion: Implicit racial bias is associated with negative markers of communication in minority client sessions and may contribute to racial disparities in processes of care related to genetic services.

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Tweeting about sexism: The well-being benefits of a social media collective action

Mindi Foster
British Journal of Social Psychology, forthcoming

Abstract:
Although collective action has psychological benefits in non-gendered contexts (Drury et al., 2005, Br. J. Soc. Psychol., 44, 309), the benefits for women taking action against gender discrimination are unclear. This study examined how a popular, yet unexplored potential form of collective action, namely tweeting about sexism, affects women's well-being. Women read about sexism and were randomly assigned to tweet to one of three control groups. Content analyses showed tweets exhibited collective intent and action. Analyses of linguistic markers suggested public tweeters used more cognitive complexity in their language than private tweeters. Profile analyses showed that compared to controls, only public tweeters showed decreasing negative affect and increasing psychological well-being, suggesting tweeting about sexism may serve as a collective action that can enhance women's well-being.

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The effect of resource competition on Blacks’ and Asians’ social distance using a virtual world methodology

John Tawa et al.
Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, forthcoming

Abstract:
Studies of intergroup social distance have focused primarily on relations between dominant and minority groups, rather than between minority groups. In this study, various dimensions of resource competition relevant to group threat theory were contrasted. Black (n = 39), Asian (n = 53), and White (n = 118) participants developed self-resembling avatars and interacted in a virtual world in which various types of resource competition contexts were simulated. Avatars’ movements were tracked and dynamic social distances between each participant dyad and between each participant and each racial group as a whole (Black, Asian, and White) were computed. Growth curve analyses indicated that in the absence of resource competition, social distance between individuals and groups diminished over time. In contrast, resource competition tended to increase social distance between individuals and groups over time. In particular, merit-based resource competition increased Black participants’ social distance to Asians relative to White participants’ social distance to Asians. Findings are discussed in relation to the context of historical dissention between Blacks and Asians, and implications for the promotion of positive race relations.

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Beliefs about group malleability and out-group attitudes: The mediating role of perceived threat in interactions with out-group members

Claudia Simão & Markus Brauer
European Journal of Social Psychology, forthcoming

Abstract:
Recent research suggests that inducing fixed (rather than malleable) beliefs about groups leads to more negative attitudes toward out-groups. The present paper identifies the underlying mechanism of this effect. We show that individuals with a fixed belief about groups tend to construe intergroup settings as threatening situations that might reveal shortcomings of their in-group (perceived threat). In the present research, we measured (Study 1) and manipulated (Study 2) participants' lay theories about group malleability. We found that the extent to which individuals had an entity (versus an incremental) group theory influenced the level of threat they felt when interacting with out-group members, and that perceived threat in turn affected their level of ethnocentrism and prejudice. These findings shed new light on the role of lay theories in intergroup attitudes and suggest new ways to reduce prejudice.

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Effects of Past and Present Intergroup Communication on Perceived Fit of an Outgroup Member and Desire for Future Intergroup Contact

Jake Harwood et al.
Communication Research, forthcoming

Abstract:
We examine predictors of outgroup partner “fit” (the extent to which an individual is seen as representative of a group), and whether fit determines generalization from a discrete intergroup communication experience to intentions for future contact with the outgroup. In an experiment, 288 undergraduate students imagined a conversation with an older target who was presented either positively or negatively. The positively valenced older adult was seen as being more representative of older people in general (high fit), and this link was stronger for those with more past positive and fewer past negative communication experiences. Fit moderated the effects of imagined interaction valence on intentions for future intergroup contact. A positive older partner perceived as fitting the category “older people” resulted in greater intention to communicate with older people in the future than a negative partner; individuals who saw their partner as atypical showed the reverse pattern — they were less likely to report intentions for future intergenerational contact after a positive than a negative manipulated interaction. The findings demonstrate that negative intergroup communication can at times have positive effects, and positive contact can have negative effects.

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Challenging emotional prejudice by changing self-concept: Priming independent self-construal reduces racial in-group bias in neural responses to other's pain

Chenbo Wang et al.
Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, forthcoming

Abstract:
Humans show stronger empathy for in-group compared to out-group members' suffering and help in-group members more than out-group members. Moreover, the in-group bias in empathy and parochial altruism tend to be more salient in collectivistic than individualistic cultures. The current work tested the hypothesis that modifying self-construals, which differentiate between collectivistic and individualistic cultural orientations, affects in-group bias in empathy for perceived own-race versus other-race pain. By scanning adults using functional MRI, we found stronger neural activities in the mid-cingulate, left insula and supplementary motor area in response to racial in-group compared to out-group members' pain after participants had been primed with interdependent self-construals. However, the racial in-group bias in neural responses to others' pain in the left SMA, MCC and insula was significantly reduced by priming independent self-construals. Our findings suggest that shifting an individual's self-construal leads to changes of his/her racial in-group bias in neural responses to others' suffering.

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Brain Reward Activity to Masked In-Group Smiling Faces Predicts Friendship Development

Pin-Hao Chen et al.
Social Psychological and Personality Science, forthcoming

Abstract:
This study examined whether neural responses in the ventral striatum (VS) to in-group facial expressions — presented without explicit awareness — could predict friendship patterns in newly arrived individuals from China 6 months later. Individuals who initially showed greater VS activity in response to in-group happy expressions during functional neuroimaging later made considerably more in-group friends, suggesting that VS activity might reflect reward processes that drive in-group approach behaviors.

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Accentuating the Negative: Candidate Race and Campaign Strategy

Yanna Krupnikov & Spencer Piston
Political Communication, Winter 2015, Pages 152-173

Abstract:
This article examines the impact of candidate race and campaign negativity on candidate evaluations and turnout. Unlike previous research, we argue that candidate race and campaign negativity should be considered simultaneously. In order to test this argument, we conduct a survey experiment of a nationally representative sample of White adults and a replication study. While we find, consistent with previous research, that respondents unfavorably evaluate candidates who decide to sponsor a negative ad, there are two important exceptions to this pattern: When the ad sponsor is Black, among White respondents who view Blacks negatively, the penalty for going negative is disproportionately large, while among White respondents who view Blacks positively, the penalty for going negative is disproportionately small. More generally, our findings suggest that the effects of candidate attributes and campaign strategy on voter behavior should not be considered in isolation, as they are mutually reinforcing.

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Does Competition Eliminate Discrimination? Evidence from the Commercial Sex Market in Singapore

Huailu Li, Kevin Lang & Kaiwen Leong
NBER Working Paper, January 2015

Abstract:
The street sex worker market in Geylang, Singapore is highly competitive. Clients can search legally at negligible cost. Sex workers discriminate based on client ethnicity despite an excess supply of sex workers. Workers are more (less) likely to approach and ask a higher (lower) price of Caucasians (Bangladeshis), based on their perceived willingness to pay. They avoid Indians, set a significantly higher price and are less likely to reach an agreement with them, suggesting that Indians face taste discrimination. These findings remain even after controlling for prostitute fixed effects and are consistent with the workers' self-reported attitudes and beliefs.

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When does it hurt? Intergroup permeability moderates the link between discrimination and self-esteem

David Bourguignon et al.
European Journal of Social Psychology, forthcoming

Abstract:
Research shows that personal discrimination and group discrimination have distinct effects on personal self-esteem. Specifically, whereas personal discrimination negatively impacts self-esteem, group discrimination increases it. We suggest that this pattern is dependent on the socio-structural context in which individuals experience discrimination. To test this hypothesis, we manipulate intergroup permeability and examine its impact on the link between personal/group discrimination and personal self-esteem. Results show that a control condition replicates previous research, that is, a positive association between group discrimination and self-esteem and a negative association for personal discrimination. The positive association of group discrimination disappeared in a permeable context and reversed when the context was presented as impermeable. Moreover, the deleterious effect of personal discrimination on self-esteem vanished in impermeable contexts. Results are discussed in light of the literature on stigmatization.

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Sexist Humor in Facebook Profiles: Perceptions of Humor Targeting Women and Men

Megan Strain, Donald Saucier & Amanda Martens
Humor, February 2015, Pages 119–141

Abstract:
Despite advances in women’s equality, and perhaps as a result of it, sexist humor is prevalent in society. Research on this topic has lacked realism in the way the humor is conveyed to participants, and has not examined perceptions of both men and women who use sexist humor. We embedded jokes in printed Facebook profiles to present sexist humor to participants. We manipulated the gender of the individual in the profile (man or woman), and the type of joke presented (anti-men, anti-women, neutral) in a 2×3 between-groups design. We found that both men and women rated anti-women jokes as more sexist than neutral humor, and women also rated anti-men jokes as sexist. We also found that men who displayed anti-women humor were perceived less positively than men displaying anti-men humor, or women displaying either type of humor. These findings suggest that there may be different gender norms in place for joke tellers regarding who is an acceptable target of sexist humor.

By KEVIN LEWIS | 09:00:00 AM

Wednesday, February 18, 2015

Latest and greatest

Knowledge, Human Capital and Economic Development: Evidence from the British Industrial Revolution, 1750-1930

Zorina Khan
NBER Working Paper, January 2015

Abstract:
Endogenous growth models raise fundamental questions about the nature of human creativity, and the sorts of resources, skills, and knowledge inputs that shift the frontier of technology and production possibilities. Many argue that the nature of early British industrialization supports the thesis that economic advances depend on specialized scientific training or the acquisition of costly human capital. This paper examines the contributions of different types of knowledge to British industrialization, by assessing the backgrounds, education and inventive activity of the major contributors to technological advances in Britain during the crucial period between 1750 and 1930. The results indicate that scientists, engineers or technicians were not well-represented among the British great inventors until very late in the nineteenth century. Instead, important discoveries and British industrial advances were achieved by individuals who exercised commonplace skills and entrepreneurial abilities to resolve perceived industrial problems. For developing countries today, the implications are that costly investments in specialized human capital resources might be less important than incentives for creativity, flexibility, and the ability to make incremental adjustments that can transform existing technologies into inventions that are appropriate for prevailing domestic conditions.

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Religion, Gambling Attitudes and Corporate Innovation

Binay Adhikari & Anup Agrawal
University of Alabama Working Paper, May 2014

Abstract:
We find that local gambling preferences have economically meaningful effects on corporate innovation. Using a county’s Catholics-to-Protestants ratio as a proxy for local gambling preferences, we show that firms headquartered in areas with greater tolerance for gambling tend to be more innovative, i.e. they spend more on R&D, and obtain more and better quality patents. These results are supported by several robustness checks, tests to mitigate identification concerns, and analyses of several secondary implications. Investment in innovation makes a stock more lottery-like, a feature desired by individuals with a taste for gambling. Gambling preferences of both local investors and managers appear to influence firms’ innovative endeavors and facilitate transforming their industry growth opportunities into firm value.

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Does Cheap Access Encourage Science? Evidence from the WWII Book Replication Program

Barbara Biasi & Petra Moser
Stanford Working Paper, December 2014

Abstract:
Policies that reduce the costs of accessing prior knowledge (which is covered by copyrights) are becoming increasingly prominent, even though systematic empirical evidence on their effects continues to be scarce. This paper examines the effects of the 1942 Book Republication Program (BRP), which allowed US publishers to replicate science books that German publishers had copyrighted in the United States, on the production of new knowledge in mathematics and chemistry. Citations data indicate a dramatic increase in citations to BRP books after 1942 compared with Swiss books in the same fields. This increase is larger for BRP books that experienced a larger decline in price under the program. We also find that effects on citations are larger for disciplines in which knowledge production is less dependent on physical capital: Citations to BRP books increased substantially more for mathematics (which depends almost exclusively on human capital) than chemistry (which is more dependent on physical capital).

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Streams of Thought: Knowledge Flows and Intellectual Cohesion in a Multidisciplinary Era

Craig Rawlings et al.
Social Forces, forthcoming

Abstract:
How has the recent shift toward multidisciplinary research affected intellectual cohesion in academia? We answer this question through an examination of collaborations and knowledge flows among researchers. We examine the relevant case of Stanford University during a period of intense investment in multidisciplinary research, using a novel measure of knowledge flows in the short-cycled movement of published references from one researcher to another. We describe intellectual cohesion and its trajectory among 1,007 faculty members between 1997 and 2006, and then examine the social-structural antecedents of dyadic knowledge flows that help explain macro-level patterns. Results show that university collaborations have grown denser and more integrated across faculty members and their institutional divisions. However, this integration is led by “star” researchers and is accompanied by a greater centralization of knowledge flows around these individuals. Results illustrate important shifts in the nature of academic research, and contribute to a dynamic view of intellectual cohesion.

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Do Firms Underinvest in Long-Term Research? Evidence from Cancer Clinical Trials

Eric Budish, Benjamin Roin & Heidi Williams
American Economic Review, forthcoming

Abstract:
We investigate whether private research investments are distorted away from long-term projects. Our theoretical model highlights two potential sources of this distortion: short-termism and the fixed patent term. Our empirical context is cancer research, where clinical trials — and hence, project durations — are shorter for late-stage cancer treatments relative to early-stage treatments or cancer prevention. Using newly constructed data, we document several sources of evidence that together show private research investments are distorted away from long-term projects. The value of life-years at stake appears large. We analyze three potential policy responses: surrogate (nonmortality) clinical-trial endpoints, targeted R&D subsidies, and patent design.

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Public R&D Investments and Private-sector Patenting: Evidence from NIH Funding Rules

Pierre Azoulay et al.
NBER Working Paper, January 2015

Abstract:
We quantify the impact of scientific grant funding at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) on the rate of patent production by pharmaceutical and biotechnology firms. Our paper makes two contributions. First, we use newly constructed bibliometric data to develop a method for flexibly linking specific grant expenditures to private-sector innovations. Second, we take advantage of idiosyncratic rigidities in the rules that govern peer review within NIH to generate exogenous variation in funding across research areas. Our results show that NIH funding spurs the development of private-sector patents: a $10 million boost in NIH funding leads to a net increase of 3.1 patents. A back-of-the-envelope calculation, focusing solely on patents for FDA-approved biopharmaceuticals, suggests that one dollar of NIH funding generates $2 in expected lifetime drug sales (or 70 cents in median lifetime drug sales).

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How Important is US Location for Research in Science?

Shulamit Kahn & Megan MacGarvie
Review of Economics and Statistics, forthcoming

Abstract:
This paper asks whether being located outside the US lowers research productivity in a dataset of foreign-born, US-educated scientists. Instrumenting location with visa status that requires return to home countries, we find a large negative relationship between non-US location and research output for countries with low income per capita, but none for countries with high income per capita. This suggests that a scientist exogenously located in a country at the top of the income distribution can expect to be as productive in research as he or she would be in the US.

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Why Do Inventors Sell to Patent Trolls? Experimental Evidence for the Asymmetry Hypothesis

Stephen Haber & Seth Werfel
Stanford Working Paper, January 2015

Abstract:
Why do individual patent holders assign their patents to "trolls" rather than license their technologies directly to manufacturers or assert them through litigation? We explore the hypothesis that an asymmetry in financial resources between individual patent holders and manufacturers prevents individuals from making a credible threat to litigate against infringement. First, individuals may not be able to cover the upfront costs associated with litigation. Second, unsuccessful litigation can result in legal fees so large as to bankrupt the individual. Therefore, a primary reason why individual patent holders sell to PAEs is that they offer insurance and liquidity. We test this hypothesis by experimentally manipulating these financial constraints on a representative sample of inventors and entrepreneurs affiliated with Stanford University and UC Berkeley. We find that in the absence of these constraints, subjects were significantly less likely to sell their patent to a PAE in a hypothetical scenario. Furthermore, treatment effects were significant only for subjects who were hypothesized to be most sensitive to these constraints.

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Age and the Trying Out of New Ideas

Mikko Packalen & Jay Bhattacharya
NBER Working Paper, January 2015

Abstract:
Older scientists are often seen as less open to new ideas than younger scientists. We put this assertion to an empirical test. Using a measure of new ideas derived from the text of nearly all biomedical scientific articles published since 1946, we compare the tendency of younger and older researchers to try out new ideas in their work. We find that papers published in biomedicine by younger researchers are more likely to build on new ideas. Collaboration with a more experienced researcher matters as well. Papers with a young first author and a more experienced last author are more likely to try out newer ideas than papers published by other team configurations. Given the crucial role that the trying out of new ideas plays in the advancement of science, our results buttress the importance of funding scientific work by young researchers.

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Public investment in U.S. agricultural R&D and the economic benefits

Matthew Andersen
Food Policy, February 2015, Pages 38–43

Abstract:
A better understanding of the relationship between public investments in agricultural R&D and the productivity enhancing benefits they produce is critical to informing the public funding of agricultural R&D and insuring future increases in agricultural productivity. This paper describes a method of estimating the relationship between research investments, productivity growth, and the resulting economic benefits generated. The data requirements include indexes of multi-factor productivity, investments in R&D, and the value of agricultural output. The real rate of return to public investments in agricultural R&D in the United States is estimated to be 10.5% per annum; however, a reduction in the growth of spending on public agricultural R&D in recent decades raises concerns about productivity growth in coming decades, which is required to insure an adequate supply of food to meet increasing demand.

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Intellectual Property Rights and Access to Innovation: Evidence from TRIPS

Margaret Kyle & Yi Qian
NBER Working Paper, December 2014

Abstract:
We examine the effect of pharmaceutical patent protection on the speed of drug launch, price, and quantity in 60 countries from 2000-2013. The World Trade Organization required its member countries to implement a minimum level of patent protection within a specified time period as part of the TRIPS Agreement. However, members retained the right to impose price controls and to issue compulsory licenses under certain conditions. These countervailing policies were intended to reduce the potential static losses that result from reduced competition during the patent term. We take advantage of the fact that at the product level, selection into TRIPS "treatment" is exogenously determined by compliance deadlines that vary across countries. We find that patents have important consequences for access to new drugs: in the absence of a patent, launch is unlikely. That is, even when no patent barrier exists, generic entry may not occur. Conditional on launch, patented drugs have higher prices but higher sales as well. The price premium associated with patents is smaller in poorer countries. Price discrimination across countries has increased for drugs patented post-TRIPS and prices are negatively related to the burden of disease, suggesting that countervailing policies to offset expected price increases may have had the intended effects.

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Innovation Efficiency, Global Diversification, and Firm Value

Wenlian Gao & Julia Chou
Journal of Corporate Finance, February 2015, Pages 278–298

Abstract:
This paper investigates whether multinational firms are less or more efficient in innovation activities than domestic firms. Using patents and citations scaled by R&D expenses and R&D capital as measures of innovation efficiency, we find that multinational firms have lower levels of innovation efficiency than purely domestic firms. This finding has been supported by additional evidence using peer pressure as an exogenous shock to firms’ strategy of going internationalization. We also find that information asymmetry and the low cost of capital could be the major channels through which global diversification impacts innovation efficiency adversely. Our results further suggest that innovation efficiency is more valuable to multinational firms that mainly diversify into developed markets or markets with better patent protection.

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Are Patent Fees Effective at Weeding out Low-quality Patents?

Gaétan de Rassenfosse & Adam Jaffe
NBER Working Paper, December 2014

Abstract:
The paper investigates whether patent fees are an effective mechanism to deter the filing of low-quality patent applications. The study analyzes the effect of the Patent Law Amendment Act of 1982, which resulted in a substantial increase in patenting fees at the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, on patent quality. Results from a series of difference-in-differences regressions suggest that the increase in fees led to a weeding out of low-quality patents. About 16–17 per cent of patents in the lowest quality decile were filtered out. The figure reaches 24–30 per cent for patents in the lowest quality quintile. However, the fee elasticity of quality decreased with the size of the patent portfolio held by applicants. The study is relevant to concerns about declines in patent quality and the financial vulnerability of patent offices.

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Localized Knowledge Spillovers: Evidence from the Agglomeration of American R&D Labs and Patent Data

Kristy Buzard et al.
Federal Reserve Working Paper, January 2015

Abstract:
We employ a unique data set to examine the spatial clustering of private R&D labs, and, using patent citations data, we provide evidence of localized knowledge spillovers within these clusters. Jaffe, Trajtenberg, and Henderson (1993, hereafter JTH) provide an aggregate measure of the importance of knowledge spillovers at either the state or metropolitan area level. However, much information is lost regarding differences in the localization of knowledge spillovers in specific geographic areas. In this article, we show that such differences can be quite substantial. Instead of using fixed spatial boundaries, we develop a new procedure — the multiscale core-cluster approach — for identifying the location and size of specific R&D clusters. This approach allows us to better capture the geographic extent of knowledge spillovers. We examine the evidence for knowledge spillovers within R&D clusters in two regions: the Northeast Corridor and California. In the former, we find that citations are from three to six times more likely to come from the same cluster as earlier patents than in comparable control samples. Our results are even stronger for labs located in California: Citations are roughly 10 to 12 times more likely to come from the same cluster. Our tests reveal evidence of the attenuation of localization effects as distance increases: The localization of knowledge spillovers is strongest at small spatial scales (5 miles or less) and diminishes rapidly with distance. At the smallest spatial scales, our localization statistics are generally much larger than JTH report for the metropolitan areas included in their tests.

By KEVIN LEWIS | 09:00:00 AM

Tuesday, February 17, 2015

A fair shot

Gender Performance in the NCAA Rifle Championships: Where is the Gap?

Nadav Goldschmied & Jason Kowalczyk
Sex Roles, forthcoming

Abstract:
The current study aimed to compare shooting performance between male and female athletes during the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Rifle Championship from the 2007 to 2013 seasons. This sport is distinct from most competitive sports as it requires little physical exertion, so physiological/ biomechanical differences between the genders that generally bring about superior performance by males relative to females may have only minimal effect on shooting performance. NCAA competitions, unlike Olympic shooting events today, allow male and female shooters to compete against each other. Using archival data covering a period of 7 years from both the team and individual tournaments, 555 scores of the best 149 shooters among mostly U.S. collegiate athletes (the best of whom went on to compete in the Olympics) were analyzed using a generalized estimating equation (GEE) model. We found no differences in performance between the genders both during team and individual competitions. The results suggest that Olympic shooting is exercising a “separate and (un)equal” policy which should be reconsidered.

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Expectations of brilliance underlie gender distributions across academic disciplines

Sarah-Jane Leslie et al.
Science, 16 January 2015, 262-265

Abstract:
The gender imbalance in STEM subjects dominates current debates about women’s underrepresentation in academia. However, women are well represented at the Ph.D. level in some sciences and poorly represented in some humanities (e.g., in 2011, 54% of U.S. Ph.D.’s in molecular biology were women versus only 31% in philosophy). We hypothesize that, across the academic spectrum, women are underrepresented in fields whose practitioners believe that raw, innate talent is the main requirement for success, because women are stereotyped as not possessing such talent. This hypothesis extends to African Americans’ underrepresentation as well, as this group is subject to similar stereotypes. Results from a nationwide survey of academics support our hypothesis (termed the field-specific ability beliefs hypothesis) over three competing hypotheses.

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Incentives to Identify: Racial Identity in the Age of Affirmative Action

Francisca Antman & Brian Duncan
University of Colorado Working Paper, December 2014

Abstract:
It is almost universally assumed that race is an exogenously given trait that is not subject to change. But as race is most often self-reported by individuals who must weigh the costs and benefits of associating with minority groups, we ask whether racial self-identification responds to economic incentives. To address this question, we link racial self-identification with changes in state-level affirmative action policies in higher education, contracting, and employment. Consistent with supporting evidence showing that individuals from underrepresented minority groups face an incentive to identify under affirmative action, we find that once affirmative action is outlawed, they are less likely to identify with their minority group. In contrast, we find that individuals from overrepresented minority groups, who face a disincentive to identify under affirmative action, are more likely to identify with their minority group once affirmative action is banned. To our knowledge, this is the first study to document a causal relationship between racial self-identification and economic incentives in the United States. As such, it has broad implications for understanding the impact of affirmative action policies, estimating broader trends in racial disparities, and the emerging literature on the construction of race and individual identity.

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State liberalism, female supervisors, and the gender wage gap

David Maume & Leah Ruppanner
Social Science Research, March 2015, Pages 126–138

Abstract:
Whereas some are concerned that the gender revolution has stalled, others note the rapid increase in women’s representation in the ranks of management, and the reduction of wage inequality in larger and more active welfare states. Although these latter trends portend an attenuation of gender inequality, their effects on the gender pay gap in the U.S. are understudied due to data limitations, or to the assumption that in the U.S. pay is determined by market forces. In this study we extend research on the determinants of the gender wage gap by examining sex-of-supervisor effects on subordinates’ pay, and to what degree the state’s commitment to equality conditions this relationship. We pooled the 1997 and 2002 National Study of the Changing Workforce surveys to estimate hierarchical models of reporting to a female supervisor and wages, with theoretically important predictors at the individual level, and at the state of residence (an index composed of women’s share of legislators, a measure of the liberal leanings of the state, and the size of the public sector relative to the labor force). We found that state effects on pay were mixed, with pay generally rising with state liberalism on the one hand. On the other hand, working for a female boss significantly reduced wages. We discussed the theoretical implications of our results, as well as the need for further study of the career effects on subordinates as women increasingly enter the ranks of management.

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“You Were the Best Qualified”: Business Beyond the Backlash Against Affirmative Action

Benton Williams
Journal of Policy History, Winter 2015, Pages 61-92

"In this article, I will juxtapose these two simultaneous and seemingly contradictory developments of the 1980s: on one hand, the successful ideological campaign against affirmative action waged by Ronald Reagan and his political appointees and supporters, and on the other, the entrenchment of affirmative practices in the private sector. The seeming contradiction is partially attributable to the federal government’s weakness in affecting private-sector affirmative action — with limited power either to enforce or to dismantle private employers’ hiring practices — and partially attributable to developments within the private sector, especially corporate recognition of the need for 'diverse' workforces and specific human resource management strategies that became prominent in the 1980s."

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Growing the Roots of STEM Majors: Female Math and Science High School Faculty and the Participation of Students in STEM

Martha Cecilia Bottia et al.
Economics of Education Review, April 2015, Pages 14–27

Abstract:
The underrepresentation of women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields is problematic given the economic and social inequities it fosters and the rising global importance of STEM occupations. This paper examines the role of the demographic composition of high school faculty — specifically the proportion of female high school math and science teachers — on college students’ decisions to declare and/or major in STEM fields. We analyze longitudinal data from students who spent their academic careers in North Carolina public secondary schools and attended North Carolina public universities. Our results suggest that although the proportion of female math and science teachers at a school has no impact on male students, it has a powerful effect on female students’ likelihood of declaring and graduating with a STEM degree, and effects are largest for female students with the highest math skills. The estimates are robust to the inclusion of controls for students’ initial ability.

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Representation in the classroom: The effect of own-race/ethnicity teacher assignment on student achievement

Anna Egalite, Brian Kisida & Marcus Winters
Economics of Education Review, forthcoming

Abstract:
Previous research suggests that there are academic benefits when students and teachers share the same race/ethnicity because such teachers can serve as role models, mentors, advocates, or cultural translators. In this paper, we obtain estimates of achievement changes as students are assigned to teachers of different races/ethnicities from grades 3 through 10 utilizing a large administrative dataset provided by the Florida Department of Education that follows the universe of test-taking students in Florida public schools from 2001-02 through 2008-09. We find small but significant positive effects when black and white students are assigned to race-congruent teachers in reading (.004 to .005 standard deviations) and for black, white and Asian/Pacific Island students in math (.007 to .041 standard deviations). We also examine the effects of race matching by students' prior performance level, finding that lower-performing black and white students appear to particularly benefit from being assigned to a race-congruent teacher.

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Science and Engineering Majors in the Federal Service: Lessons for Eliminating Sexual and Racial Inequality

Seong Soo Oh & Jungbu Kim
Review of Public Personnel Administration, March 2015, Pages 24-46

Abstract:
This study explores how the gender and racial composition of the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) portion of the federal workforce has changed, and how female and minority employees with STEM degrees compare with White majorities and those with degrees in non-STEM fields. Using a series of ordinary least square analyses of a 1% random sample of federal employees for 1983, 1996, and 2009, this study finds that gender and racial pay disparities have decreased over the study period, and that the extant gender pay gap can be explained largely by educational attainment, work experience, and particularly by the changing composition in STEM majors. Despite the decrease in pay disparity, a racial pay gap still remains even after controlling for education level, federal experience, and other major factors.

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The Snowballing Penalty Effect: Multiple Disadvantage and Pay

Carol Woodhams, Ben Lupton & Marc Cowling
British Journal of Management, January 2015, Pages 63–77

Abstract:
This paper makes the case that the current single-axis approach to the diagnosis and remedy of pay discrimination is inadequate in the case of multiple disadvantage. While a good deal is known about pay gaps, particularly those affecting women, less is known about those affecting people in other disadvantaged groups and those in more than one such group. This analysis of multiple years of pay data, n = 513,000, from a large UK-based company shows that people with more than one disadvantaged identity suffer a significantly greater pay penalty than those with a single disadvantage. The data also suggest that penalties associated with multiple disadvantage exponentially increase. In other words, disadvantages seem to interact to the detriment of people at ‘intersections’. The paper considers the implications for policies aimed at reducing pay inequalities. These currently take a single-axis approach and may be misdirected.

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Employment Discrimination Lawsuits and Corporate Stock Prices

Elizabeth Hirsh & Youngjoo Cha
Social Currents, March 2015, Pages 40-57

Abstract:
In this study, we examine the financial impact of employment discrimination lawsuit verdicts and settlements on publicly traded firms subject to lawsuits between 1997 and 2008. Using data on 174 sex and race discrimination lawsuits involving 107 publicly traded companies, we assess the effect of lawsuit verdicts and settlements on changes in defendants’ daily stock returns. Findings indicate that verdicts and settlements have an immediate negative impact on defendants’ stock prices. In addition, the negative effect is more pronounced among cases that involve monetary payouts, cases in which the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission is a plaintiff and cases that involve sex as opposed to race or national origin discrimination. These results demonstrate the extent to which legal rulings introduce a market penalty for employers and have implications for the study of law, organizations, and market responses to discriminatory behavior.

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Agents of Change or Cogs in the Machine? Re-examining the Influence of Female Managers on the Gender Wage Gap

Sameer Srivastava & Eliot Sherman
University of California Working Paper, August 2014

Abstract:
Do female managers ameliorate or instead perpetuate the gender wage gap? Although conceptual arguments exist on both sides of this debate, the preponderance of the empirical evidence has favored the view that female managers are agents of change who act in ways that reduce the gender wage gap. Yet the evidence from which this sociological baseline has emerged comes primarily from cross-establishment surveys, which do not provide visibility into the choices of individual managers. Using longitudinal personnel records from a large information services firm in which managers had considerable discretion to influence employee salaries, we estimate multilevel models that indicate no support for the proposition that female managers act to reduce the gender wage gap among employees who report to them. Consistent with the theory of value threat, we instead find conditional support for the cogs-in-the-machine perspective: In the subsample of high performing supervisors and low performing employees, women who switched from a male to a female supervisor had a lower salary in the following year than men who made the same switch.

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New Color Lines: Racial/Ethnic Inequality in Earnings among College-Educated Men

ChangHwan Kim
Sociological Quarterly, Winter 2015, Pages 152–184

Abstract:
Using the 2003 National Survey of College Graduates, this study examined four perspectives on new color lines in America — white–nonwhite, black–nonblack, tri-racial, and blurred — among college-educated white, black, Hispanic, and Asian men. Findings show that the color lines have not been consistently drawn but vary by nativity and migration status. Among the native born, the color line for earnings cuts mainly across white and nonwhite when field of study and Carnegie classification are controlled for in addition to other covariates. On the other hand, among members of the 1.5 generation, who obtained both their high school and highest degrees in the United States, the lines are most salient between black and nonblack. Among first-generation immigrants, who completed all their education in a foreign country, and 1.25-generation immigrants, who obtained their high school diploma in a foreign country but earned their highest degree in the United States, there is a gradation of the color line with whites at the top and blacks at the bottom. Despite these mixed results, blacks fall consistently at the bottom of the racial hierarchy and whites at the top, regardless of nativity and migration status. Implications of the findings are discussed.

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Forecasting the experience of stereotype threat for others

Kathryn Boucher, Robert Rydell & Mary Murphy
Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, May 2015, Pages 56–62

Abstract:
Women can underperform when they are concerned about confirming negative gender-based math stereotypes; however, little research has investigated whether female and male perceivers have insight into the experiences of stereotype-threatened women. Female and male participants were randomly assigned to take a math test under stereotype-threatening conditions (experiencers) or predict how a woman taking a math test would feel and perform in the same situation (forecasters). Although female and male forecasters expected female experiencers to have more negative emotional reactions than they actually did, forecasters believed that female experiencers would overcome these emotional reactions and perform at a high level — a much higher level than female experiencers actually performed. This discrepancy for performance expectations was driven by forecasters' beliefs that female experiencers could overcome threat. This research suggests that strengthening the perceived link between stereotype threat's impact on emotional experiences and performance outcomes could foster others' appreciation of its insidious influence.

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Examining Men’s Status Shield and Status Bonus: How Gender Frames the Emotional Labor and Job Satisfaction of Nurses

Marci Cottingham, Rebecca Erickson & James Diefendorff
Sex Roles, forthcoming

Abstract:
(Hochschild 1983) coined the term status shield to theorize men’s status-based protection from the emotional abuses of working in a service job and hence their diminished need to manage emotions as compared to women. Extending this concept, the current study examines how gender operates not merely to shield men from emotional labor on the job but to also shape the relationship between emotional labor and job satisfaction. Using survey data collected from 730 registered nurses (667 women and 63 men) at a large Midwestern hospital system in the U.S., we show that in addition to engaging in less emotional labor than women, men benefit from their emotion management in ways that women do not. Gender moderates the relationship between two dimensions of emotional labor (i.e., surface acting – covering emotion and deep acting) and two outcome measures (i.e., job satisfaction and turnover intention). Results support theoretical claims that men’s privileged status shields them from having to perform emotional labor as frequently as women. Further, when male nurses do perform higher levels of emotional labor, they are shielded from the negative effects of covering emotion and their deep acting correlates with higher job satisfaction — a status bonus — compared to that of their female colleagues. Implications for gender theory, emotional labor, and nursing policy and practice are discussed.

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Status Beliefs and the Spirit of Capitalism: Accounting for Gender Biases in Entrepreneurship and Innovation

Sarah Thébaud
University of California Working Paper, November 2014

Abstract:
In this article, I develop and empirically test the theoretical argument that widely shared cultural beliefs about men’s and women’s abilities in the area of entrepreneurship (i.e. “gender status beliefs”) systematically influence the social interactions during which an entrepreneur, particularly an innovative entrepreneur, seeks support from potential stakeholders for his or her new organization. To evaluate this argument, I conducted three experimental studies in the United Kingdom and the United States in which student participants were asked to evaluate the profiles of two entrepreneurs and to make investment decisions for each. The studies manipulated the gender of the entrepreneur and the innovativeness of the business plan. The main finding is consistent across studies: gender status beliefs disadvantage typical women entrepreneurs vis-à-vis their male counterparts, but innovation in a business model has a stronger and more positive impact on ratings of women’s entrepreneurial ability and overall support for their business ideas than it does for men’s. However, the strength of these patterns varies significantly depending on the societal and industry context of the new venture in question. Findings indicate that gender status beliefs can be understood as an important “demand-side” mechanism contributing to gender inequality in aggregate entrepreneurship rates and a micro-level factor affecting the likelihood that a new and novel organization will emerge and survive.

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On The Origins of Gender Human Capital Gaps: Short and Long Term Consequences of Teachers' Stereotypical Biases

Victor Lavy & Edith Sand
NBER Working Paper, January 2015

Abstract:
In this paper, we estimate the effect of primary school teachers’ gender biases on boys’ and girls’ academic achievements during middle and high school and on the choice of advanced level courses in math and sciences during high school. For identification, we rely on the random assignments of teachers and students to classes in primary schools. Our results suggest that teachers’ biases favoring boys have an asymmetric effect by gender — positive effect on boys’ achievements and negative effect on girls’. Such gender biases also impact students’ enrollment in advanced level math courses in high school — boys positively and girls negatively. These results suggest that teachers’ biased behavior at early stage of schooling have long run implications for occupational choices and earnings at adulthood, because enrollment in advanced courses in math and science in high school is a prerequisite for post-secondary schooling in engineering, computer science and so on. This impact is heterogeneous, being larger for children from families where the father is more educated than the mother and larger on girls from low socioeconomic background.

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Social Identity and Inequality: The Impact of China’s Hukou System

Farzana Afridi, Sherry Xin Li & Yufei Ren
Journal of Public Economics, March 2015, Pages 17–29

Abstract:
We conduct an experimental study to investigate the causal impact of social identity on individuals’ performance under incentives. We focus on China’s household registration (hukou) system, which favors urban residents and discriminates against rural residents in resource allocation. Our results show that making individuals’ hukou identity salient significantly reduces the performance of rural migrant students, relative to their local urban counterparts, on an incentivized cognitive task, and consequently significantly lowers their relative ranking in the earnings distribution under the piece rate regime. However, the impact of hukou identity salience is insignificant in the tournament regime, suggesting that its negative effect on migrant students’ performance may be mitigated when competition is introduced. The results demonstrate the impact of institutionally imposed social identity on individuals’ economic performance, and potentially on inequality.

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Mild test anxiety influences neurocognitive performance among African Americans and European Americans: Identifying interfering and facilitating sources

April Thames et al.
Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, January 2015, Pages 105-113

Abstract:
The current study examined ethnic/racial differences in test-related anxiety and its relationship to neurocognitive performance in a community sample of African American (n = 40) and European American (n = 36) adults. The authors hypothesized the following: (a) Test-anxiety related to negative performance evaluation would be associated with lower neurocognitive performance, whereas anxiety unrelated to negative evaluation would be associated with higher neurocognitive performance. (b) African American participants would report higher levels of anxiety about negative performance evaluation than European Americans. (c) European Americans would report higher levels of anxiety unrelated to negative performance evaluation. The first two hypotheses were supported: Ethnic/racial differences in test-taking anxiety emerged such that African Americans reported significantly higher levels of negative performance evaluation, which was associated with lower cognitive performance. The third hypothesis was not supported: African Americans and European Americans reported similar levels of test-anxiety unrelated to negative evaluation.

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Does Society Underestimate Women? Evidence from the Performance of Female Jockeys in Horse Racing

Alasdair Brown & Fuyu Yang
Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, March 2015, Pages 106–118

Abstract:
Women are under-represented in many top jobs. We investigate whether biased beliefs about female ability - a form of ‘mistake-based discrimination’ - are partially responsible for this under-representation. We use more than 10 years of data on the performance of female jockeys in U.K. and Irish horse racing - a sport where, uniquely, men and women compete side-by-side - to evaluate the presence of such discrimination. The odds produced by the betting market provide a window onto society's beliefs about the abilities of women in a male-dominated occupation. We find that women are slightly underestimated, winning 0.3% more races than the market predicts. Female jockeys are underestimated to a greater extent in jump racing, where their participation is low. We discuss possible reasons for this association.

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Performance pay, competitiveness, and the gender wage gap: Evidence from the United States

Andrew McGee, Peter McGee & Jessica Pan
Economics Letters, March 2015, Pages 35–38

Abstract:
We show that women in the NLSY79 and NLSY97 are less likely than men to receive competitive compensation. The portion of the gender wage gap explained by compensation schemes is small in the NLSY79 but somewhat larger in the NLSY97.

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No Place Like Home? Familism and Latino/a-White Differences in College Pathways

Sarah Ovink & Demetra Kalogrides
Social Science Research, forthcoming

Abstract:
Recent research has argued that familism, defined as a cultural preference for privileging family goals over individual goals, may discourage some Latino/a youth from applying to and attending college, particularly if they must leave home (Desmond and López Turley, 2009). Using data from the Education Longitudinal Study, we find that Latino/a students and parents indeed have stronger preferences than white students and parents for living at home during college. For students, most differences in preferences for proximate colleges are explained by socioeconomic status, academic achievement and high school/regional differences. Moreover, controlling for socioeconomic background and prior achievement explains most racial/ethnic gaps in college application and attendance among high school graduates, suggesting that familism per se is not a significant deterrent to college enrollment above and beyond these more primary factors. However, results indicate generational differences; cultural factors may contribute to racial/ethnic gaps in parental preferences for children to remain at home.

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Hostile sexism (de)motivates women's social competition intentions: The contradictory role of emotions

Elena Lemonaki, Antony Manstead & Gregory Maio
British Journal of Social Psychology, forthcoming

Abstract:
In the present research, we examine the ways in which exposure to hostile sexism influences women's competitive collective action intentions. Prior to testing our main model, our first study experimentally induced high versus low levels of security-comfort with the aim of providing experimental evidence for the proposed causal link between these emotions and intentions to engage in social competition. Results showed that lower levels of security-comfort reduced women's readiness to compete socially with men. Experiment 2 investigated the effect of hostile sexism on women's emotional reactions and readiness to engage in social competition. Consistent with the proposed model, results showed that exposure to hostile beliefs about women (1) increased anger-frustration and (2) decreased security-comfort. More specifically, exposure to hostile sexism had a positive indirect effect on social competition intentions through anger-frustration, and a negative indirect effect through security-comfort.

By KEVIN LEWIS | 09:00:00 AM

Monday, February 16, 2015

In the know

No Pass No Drive: Education and Allocation of Time

Rashmi Barua & Marian Vidal-Fernandez
Journal of Human Capital, Winter 2014, Pages 399-431

Abstract:
Around one-third of students in the United States, mostly boys and blacks, fail to graduate from high school each year. Since the late 1980s, several states have introduced minimum academic requirements for teenagers to obtain driver's licenses. Using data from the American Community Survey, we find that these so-called No Pass No Drive laws have a positive and significant effect on high school completion and educational attainment among males and blacks, but not among females. Data from Monitoring the Future suggest that students who remained in school increased time allocated to schoolwork at the expense of leisure and work hours.

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The Effects of School Spending on Educational and Economic Outcomes: Evidence from School Finance Reforms

Kirabo Jackson, Rucker Johnson & Claudia Persico
NBER Working Paper, January 2015

Abstract:
Since Coleman (1966), many have questioned whether school spending affects student outcomes. The school finance reforms that began in the early 1970s and accelerated in the 1980s caused some of the most dramatic changes in the structure of K-12 education spending in US history. To study the effect of these school-finance-reform-induced changes in school spending on long-run adult outcomes, we link school spending and school finance reform data to detailed, nationally-representative data on children born between 1955 and 1985 and followed through 2011. We use the timing of the passage of court-mandated reforms, and their associated type of funding formula change, as an exogenous shifter of school spending and we compare the adult outcomes of cohorts that were differentially exposed to school finance reforms, depending on place and year of birth. Event-study and instrumental variable models reveal that a 10 percent increase in per-pupil spending each year for all twelve years of public school leads to 0.27 more completed years of education, 7.25 percent higher wages, and a 3.67 percentage-point reduction in the annual incidence of adult poverty; effects are much more pronounced for children from low-income families. Exogenous spending increases were associated with sizable improvements in measured school quality, including reductions in student-to-teacher ratios, increases in teacher salaries, and longer school years.

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Accountability Pressure and Non-Achievement Student Behaviors

John Holbein & Helen Ladd
Duke University Working Paper, January 2015

Abstract:
In this paper we examine how failing to make adequate yearly progress under No Child Left Behind (NCLB), and the accountability pressure that ensues, affects various non-achievement student behaviors. Using administrative data from North Carolina and leveraging a discontinuity in the determination of school failure, we examine the causal impact of accountability pressure both on student behaviors that are incentivized by NCLB and on those that are not. We find evidence that, as NCLB intends, pressure encourages students to show up at school and to do so on time. Accountability pressure also has the unintended effect, however, of increasing the number of student misbehaviors such as suspensions, fights, and offenses reportable to law enforcement. Further, this negative response is most pronounced among minorities and low performing students, who are the most likely to be left behind.

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The Maine Question: How Is 4-Year College Enrollment Affected by Mandatory College Entrance Exams?

Michael Hurwitz et al.
Educational Evaluation And Policy Analysis, March 2015, Pages 138-159

Abstract:
We use a difference-in-differences analytic approach to estimate postsecondary consequences from Maine's mandate that all public school juniors take the SATR. We find that, overall, the policy increased 4-year college-going rates by 2- to 3-percentage points and that 4-year college-going rates among induced students increased by 10-percentage points.

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Why has for-profit colleges' share of higher education expanded so rapidly? Estimating the responsiveness to labor market changes

Gregory Gilpin, Joseph Saunders & Christiana Stoddard
Economics of Education Review, forthcoming

Abstract:
Over the last two decades, for-profit colleges (FPCs) have substantially increased their share of the higher education market. One potential explanation is that FPC sector may be more responsive to labor market changes than public competitors. Using panel datasets of Associate's degree students, we examine the effects of changes in labor market conditions across various employment fields on enrollment and degree completion in related majors. The results indicate that enrollment and degree completion in the FPC sector is positively related to employment growth and wages in related occupations, while public institutions remain largely unresponsive. Heterogeneity analysis reveals that these relationships are similar across groups of students by gender and ethnicity. Furthermore, the results also indicate that students in public institutions are non-responsive to changes in labor markets associated with requiring an Associate's or Bachelor's degree.

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When Should Children Start School?

Dionissi Aliprantis
Journal of Human Capital, Winter 2014, Pages 481-536

Abstract:
This paper studies causal effects informative for deciding the age when children should start kindergarten. I present evidence from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-99 (ECLS-K) that standard instrumental variable strategies do not identify effects of delaying kindergarten entry for any subpopulation of interest. I propose and implement a new strategy for identifying individual-level education production function parameters. Estimates indicate that there can be decreasing and even negative returns to relative age: For the oldest children in a cohort, educational achievement in third grade decreases as their age relative to that of their classmates increases.

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Cognitive Skills, Personality, and Economic Preferences in Collegiate Success

Stephen Burks et al.
Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, forthcoming

Abstract:
We collected multiple measures from 100 students at a small public undergraduate liberal arts college in the Midwestern US and later assessed their academic success. The "proactive" (hard-working, persistent) aspect of the Big Five trait of Conscientiousness and not its "inhibitive" (organized, careful) aspect is a large positive predictor for two graduation outcomes and grade point average (GPA). The Big Five trait of Agreeableness ("pro-sociality") is a large and negative predictor for graduation outcomes. A non-standard cognitive skill measure (a backward-induction game) positively predicts graduation outcomes, in parallel with its success in predicting vocational student job success (Burks et al., 2009). Patient time preferences predict one graduation outcome and GPA.

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Heterogeneous trends in U.S. teacher quality 1980-2010

Jeremiah Richey
Education Economics, forthcoming

Abstract:
This paper documents changes in the entire ability distribution of individuals entering the teaching profession using the 1979 and 1997 cohorts of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and a constructed Armed Force Qualifying Test score that allows direct comparison of ability between cohorts. Such direct comparison between cohorts was previously not possible due to a lack of directly comparable measures of ability. I find there are minimal differences in the ability distribution between cohorts. However, this similarity masks vast differences within specific demographics. I then also decompose these changes into cohort-wide shifts and within-cohort shifts of teachers.

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The Impact of State Supreme Court Decisions on Public School Finance

Sarah Hill & Roderick Kiewiet
Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization, March 2015, Pages 61-92

Abstract:
Beginning with Serrano v. Priest in 1971, equity-based decisions issued by state supreme courts led to a decrease in cross-district inequality in per pupil expenditures. In subsequent years, more state supreme courts overturned existing systems of public school finance for failing to provide adequate education to students living in poor school districts. Adequacy-based decisions have not produced measurable changes in cross-district inequality in expenditures, but have led to higher overall levels of funding for public education. The nationwide increase in per pupil expenditures over the past several decades is, however, largely the product of growth in personal incomes and a decline in the relative size of the cohort of school-age children, and not of court-ordered finance reforms. In California, after Serrano and the most far-reaching equalization reforms implemented anywhere in the country, the association between the wealth of a school district and educational quality remains strong and persistent. If one's concern is the quality of education that students receive and not the amount of money spent on them, the victories that reformers have won in the courts have been hollow victories.

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Demographic changes and education expenditures: A reinterpretation

Haydar Kurban, Ryan Gallagher & Joseph Persky
Economics of Education Review, forthcoming

Abstract:
Several empirical studies have estimated a negative relationship between the share of an area's elderly population and per-pupil education spending. These findings have often been interpreted as evidence that an aging population has hindered the growth in per-pupil expenditures. We offer a reinterpretation of these oft-cited estimates and demonstrate that the population has aged in a way not reflected in these earlier studies' empirical designs. After fully accounting for actual U.S. population trends, we demonstrate that a rise in the elderly share of the population has resulted in a rise in per-pupil education spending, not a decline.

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Motivation and Incentives in Education: Evidence from a Summer Reading Experiment

Jonathan Guryan, James Kim & Kyung Park
NBER Working Paper, January 2015

Abstract:
For whom and under what conditions do incentives work in education? In the context of a summer reading program called Project READS, we test whether responsiveness to incentives is positively or negatively related to the student's baseline level of motivation to read. Elementary school students were mailed books weekly during the summer, mailed books and also offered an incentive to read, or assigned to a control group. We find that students who were more motivated to read at baseline were more responsive to incentives, suggesting that incentives may not effectively target the students whose behavior they are intended to change.

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Genetic differential susceptibility in literacy-delayed children: A randomized controlled trial on emergent literacy in kindergarten

Rachel Plak, Cornelia Kegel & Adriana Bus
Development and Psychopathology, February 2015, Pages 69-79

Abstract:
In this randomized controlled trial, 508 5-year-old kindergarten children participated, of whom 257 were delayed in literacy skills because they belonged to the lowest quartile of a national standard literacy test. We tested the hypothesis that some children are more susceptible to school-entry educational interventions than their peers due to their genetic makeup, and thus whether the dopamine receptor D4 gene moderated intervention effects. Children were randomly assigned to a control condition or one of two interventions involving computer programs tailored to the literacy needs of delayed pupils: Living Letters for alphabetic knowledge and Living Books for text comprehension. Effects of Living Books met the criteria of differential susceptibility. For carriers of the dopamine receptor D4 gene seven-repeat allele (about one-third of the delayed group), the Living Books program was an important addition to the common core curriculum in kindergarten (effect size d = 0.56), whereas the program did not affect the other children (d = -0.09). The same seven-repeat carriers benefited more from Living Letters than did the noncarriers, as reflected in effect sizes of 0.63 and 0.34, respectively, although such differences did not fulfill the statistical criteria for differential susceptibility. The implications of differential susceptibility for education and regarding the crucial question "what works for whom?" are discussed.

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For Better or Worse: Organizational turnaround in New York City schools

Nathan Favero & Amanda Rutherford
Public Management Review, forthcoming

Abstract:
The performance of public organizations has become a more salient issue as the popularity of accountability policies has grown. Though organizations are often defined as underperforming, little is known about the effectiveness of various strategies commonly recommended for agency turnaround. This study provides a large-N test of three common categories of turnaround mechanisms - retrenchment, repositioning, and reorganization - in nearly 300 failing New York City schools between 2008 and 2011. Models show that none of the three turnaround strategies appear to be significantly associated with improvements in core organizational performance from an administrative perspective, although repositioning appears to improve client satisfaction.

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Extracurricular associations and college enrollment

Benjamin Gibbs et al.
Social Science Research, March 2015, Pages 367-381

Abstract:
There is consistent evidence that student involvement in extracurricular activities (EAs) is associated with numerous academic benefits, yet understanding how peer associations within EAs might influence this link is not well understood. Using Add Health's comprehensive data on EA participation across 80 schools in the United States, we develop a novel measure of peer associations within EA activities. We find that EA participation with high achieving peers has a nontrivial link to college enrollment, even after considering individual, peer, and school-level factors. This suggests that school policies aimed at encouraging student exposure to high achieving peers in EAs could have an important impact on a student's later educational outcomes.

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What High-Achieving Low-Income Students Know About College

Caroline Hoxby & Sarah Turner
NBER Working Paper, January 2015

Abstract:
Previous work (Hoxby and Avery 2014) shows that low-income higher achievers tend not to apply to selective colleges despite being extremely likely to be admitted with financial aid so generous that they would pay less than they do to attend the non-selective schools they usually attend. The Expanding College Opportunities project is a randomized controlled trial that provides such students with individualized information about the college application process and colleges' net prices. In other work (Hoxby and Turner 2013), we show that the informational intervention substantially raises students' probability of applying to, being admitted at, enrolling at, and progressing at selective colleges. In this study, we show that the intervention actually changes students' informedness on key topics such as the cost of college, the availability of the curricula and peers they seek, and the different types of colleges available to them. We highlight topics on which the control students, who experienced no intervention, are seriously misinformed.

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Positioning Charter Schools in Los Angeles: Diversity of Form and Homogeneity of Effects

Douglas Lee Lauen, Bruce Fuller & Luke Dauter
American Journal of Education, February 2015, Pages 213-239

Abstract:
The debate over charter school effectiveness relies largely on neoclassical logic: individual parents or students express demand for a widening array of school types and then experience variable levels of organizational quality. We argue that market-like behavior is nested in segments of local organizational fields with different types of charter school operators seeking market niches to reduce resource uncertainties. We first describe the emergence of three legally defined charter types in the Los Angeles Unified School District between 2002 and 2008. We show how these charter segments became stratified, as gauged by demographic attributes and quite different baseline achievement levels. While this structuration could also plausibly condition uneven achievement effects, we find that, in this initial period of charter expansion, all three types failed to raise achievement, compared with the achievement growth trajectories displayed by peers attending regular public schools.

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A longitudinal analysis of the effects of open enrollment on equity and academic achievement: Evidence from Minneapolis, Minnesota

Saahoon Hong & Wonseok Choi
Children and Youth Services Review, February 2015, Pages 62-70

Abstract:
Open enrollment was expected to provide students in urban school settings with equal opportunity to access schools with abundant educational resources that led to improved student achievement. The One-way ANOVA and Linear Mixed Models used a propensity score matching method were administered to identify to what extent urban students utilized inter-district open enrollment in a Midwestern city and to compare their performances on standardized tests before and after the school transfer had occurred. The results indicated that open enrollment provided black students and students in the child welfare system with equal access to racially and socioeconomically integrated schools. However, these students' academic performance was not significantly enhanced by their open enrollment, except the 3rd grade student achievement in math. The results raised questions about the characteristics of open enrollment. Recommendations for future research are made; study limitations are addressed.

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Knowledge Assessment: Squeezing Information From Multiple-Choice Testing

Raymond Nickerson, Susan Butler & Michael Carlin
Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, forthcoming

Abstract:
Knowledge assessment via testing can be viewed from two vantage points: that of the test administrator and that of the test taker. From the administrator's perspective, the objective is to discover what an individual knows about a domain of interest. From that of the test taker, the challenge is to reveal what one knows. In this article we describe a procedure for administering and scoring multiple-choice tests that satisfies both of these objectives and we present experimental data that demonstrate its effectiveness. The method allows test takers to provide specific information about their confidence that each alternative for an item is the correct answer and makes guessing not only unnecessary but detrimental. From this information the administrator can derive measures of both knowledge and confidence, which, we argue, provides better estimates than systems that do not allow measurement of partial knowledge. The use of such measures for purposes of evaluation both of individual test takers' knowledge of a subject of interest and of the effectiveness of instruction with respect to that subject is discussed.

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Can Online Learning Bend the Higher Education Cost Curve?

David Deming et al.
NBER Working Paper, January 2015

Abstract:
We examine whether online learning technologies have led to lower prices in higher education. Using data from the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System, we show that online education is concentrated in large for-profit chains and less-selective public institutions. Colleges with a higher share of online students charge lower tuition prices. We present evidence that real and relative prices for full-time undergraduate online education declined from 2006 to 2013. Although the pattern of results suggests some hope that online technology can "bend the cost curve" in higher education, the impact of online learning on education quality remains uncertain.

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Expectations on Track? High School Tracking and Adolescent Educational Expectations

Kristian Bernt Karlson
Social Forces, forthcoming

Abstract:
This paper examines the role of adaptation in expectation formation processes by analyzing how educational tracking in high schools affects adolescents' educational expectations. I argue that adolescents view track placement as a signal about their academic abilities and respond to it in terms of modifying their educational expectations. Applying a difference-in-differences approach to the National Educational Longitudinal Study of 1988, I find that being placed in an advanced or honors class in high school positively affects adolescents' expectations, particularly if placement is consistent across subjects and if placement contradicts tracking experiences in middle school. My findings support the hypothesis that adolescents adapt their educational expectations to ability signals sent by schools.

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For want of a nail: Why unnecessarily long tests may be impeding the progress of Western civilization

Howard Wainer & Richard Feinberg
Significance, February 2015, Pages 16-21

Abstract:
The longer the test, the more reliable it is - up to a point. Howard Wainer and Richard Feinberg expose the costs and hours lost in pursuit of marginal gains and worthless subscores.

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Subjective Performance Evaluation in the Public Sector: Evidence from School Inspections

Iftikhar Hussain
Journal of Human Resources, Winter 2015, Pages 189-221

Abstract:
This paper investigates the effects of being evaluated under a novel subjective assessment system where independent inspectors visit schools at short notice, disclose their findings, and sanction schools rated fail. I demonstrate that a fail inspection rating leads to test score gains for primary school students. I find no evidence to suggest that fail schools are able to inflate test score performance by gaming the system. Relative to purely test-based accountability systems, this finding is striking and suggests that oversight by evaluators who are charged with investigating what goes on inside the classroom may play an important role in mitigating such strategic behavior. There appear to be no effects on test scores following an inspection for schools rated highly by the inspectors. This suggests that any effects from the process of evaluation and feedback are negligible for nonfailing schools, at least in the short term.

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Impact of North Carolina's Early Childhood Initiatives on Special Education Placements in Third Grade

Clara Muschkin, Helen Ladd & Kenneth Dodge
Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, forthcoming

Abstract:
This study examines the community-wide effects of investments in two early childhood initiatives in North Carolina (Smart Start and More at Four) on the likelihood of a student being placed into special education. We take advantage of variation across North Carolina counties and years in the timing of the introduction and funding levels of the two programs to identify their effects on third-grade outcomes. We find that both programs significantly reduce the likelihood of special education placement in the third grade, resulting in considerable cost savings to the state. The effects of the two programs differ across categories of disability, but do not vary significantly across subgroups of children identified by race, ethnicity, and maternal education levels.

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Does it pay to attend a for-profit college? Vertical and horizontal stratification in higher education

Patrick Denice
Social Science Research, forthcoming

Abstract:
Despite the recent growth of for-profit colleges, scholars are only beginning to understand the labor market consequences of attending these institutions. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, I find that for-profit associate's degree holders encounter lower hourly earnings than associate's degree holders educated at public or private, nonprofit colleges, and earnings that are not significantly different than high school graduates. However, individuals who complete a bachelor's degree by attending college in either the for-profit or nonprofit sectors encounter positive returns. These findings, robust to model selection, suggest that the distinction between for-profit and nonprofit colleges constitutes an important axis in the horizontal dimension of education at the sub-baccalaureate level, and complicate notions of vertical stratification such that higher levels of educational attainment do not necessarily guarantee a wage premium.

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Using Student Test Scores to Measure Principal Performance

Jason Grissom, Demetra Kalogrides & Susanna Loeb
Educational Evaluation And Policy Analysis, March 2015, Pages 3-28

Abstract:
Expansion of the use of student test score data to measure teacher performance has fueled recent policy interest in using those data to measure the effects of school administrators as well. However, little research has considered the capacity of student performance data to uncover principal effects. Filling this gap, this article identifies multiple conceptual approaches for capturing the contributions of principals to student test score growth, develops empirical models to reflect these approaches, examines the properties of these models, and compares the results of the models empirically using data from a large urban school district. The article then assesses the degree to which the estimates from each model are consistent with measures of principal performance that come from sources other than student test scores, such as school district evaluations. The results show that choice of model is substantively important for assessment. While some models identify principal effects as large as 0.18 standard deviations in math and 0.12 in reading, others find effects as low as 0.0.05 (math) or 0.03 (reading) for the same principals. We also find that the most conceptually unappealing models, which over-attribute school effects to principals, align more closely with nontest measures than do approaches that more convincingly separate the effect of the principal from the effects of other school inputs.

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Borrowing Trouble? Student Loans, the Cost of Borrowing, and Implications for the Effectiveness of Need-Based Grant Aid

Benjamin Marx & Lesley Turner
NBER Working Paper, January 2015

Abstract:
We use regression discontinuity and regression kink designs to estimate the impact of need-based grant aid on the borrowing and educational attainment of students enrolled in a large public university system. Pell Grant aid substantially reduces borrowing: among students who would borrow in the absence of a Pell Grant, every dollar of Pell Grant aid crowds-out over $1.80 of loans. A simple model illustrates that our findings are consistent with students facing a fixed cost of incurring debt. The presence of such a fixed cost may lead to the unintended consequence of additional grant aid decreasing some students' attainment. Empirically, we rule out all but modest average impacts of Pell Grant aid on attainment, and we provide suggestive evidence of heterogeneous effects consistent with our fixed-borrowing-cost model. We estimate an augmented Tobit model with random censoring thresholds to allow for heterogeneous fixed borrowing costs, and find that eliminating the fixed cost would increase borrowing by over 250 percent.

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The Effects of Vouchers on School Results: Evidence from Chile's Targeted Voucher Program

Juan Correa, Francisco Parro & Loreto Reyes
Journal of Human Capital, Winter 2014, Pages 351-398

Abstract:
We use data from Chile's targeted voucher program to test the effects of vouchers on school results. Targeted vouchers have delivered extra resources to low-income, vulnerable students since 2008. Moreover, under this scheme, additional resources are contingent on the completion of specific education reforms. Using a difference-in-differences approach and a market-level empirical analysis, we find a positive and significant effect of vouchers on standardized test scores. Additionally, our results highlight the importance of conditioning the delivery of resources to some specific academic goals in markets with institutional characteristics that prevent public schools from behaving as profit-maximizing firms.

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Enhancing inferential abilities in adolescence: New hope for students in poverty

Jacquelyn Gamino et al.
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, December 2014

Abstract:
The ability to extrapolate essential gist through the analysis and synthesis of information, prediction of potential outcomes, abstraction of ideas, and integration of relationships with world knowledge is critical for higher-order learning. The present study investigated the efficacy of cognitive training to elicit improvements in gist reasoning and fact recall ability in 556 public middle school students (grades seven and eight), vs. a sample of 357 middle school students who served as a comparison group, to determine if changes in gist reasoning and fact recall were demonstrated without cognitive training. The results showed that, in general, cognitive training increased gist reasoning and fact recall abilities in students from families in poverty as well as students from families living above poverty. However, the magnitude of gains in gist reasoning varied as a function of gender and grade level. Our primary findings were that seventh and eighth grade girls and eighth grade boys showed significant increases in gist reasoning after training regardless of socioeconomic status (SES). There were no significant increases in gist reasoning or fact recall ability for the 357 middle school students who served as a comparison group. We postulate that cognitive training in middle school is efficacious for improving gist reasoning ability and fact recall in students from all socioeconomic levels.

By KEVIN LEWIS | 09:00:00 AM

Sunday, February 15, 2015

We can work this out

Does a competent leader make a good friend? Conflict, ideology and the psychologies of friendship and followership

Lasse Laustsen & Michael Bang Petersen
Evolution and Human Behavior, forthcoming

Abstract:
Research demonstrates that the physical traits of leaders and political candidates influence election outcomes and that subjects favor functionally different physical traits in leaders when their social groups face problems related to war and peace, respectively. Previous research has interpreted these effects as evidence of a problem-sensitive and distinct psychology of followership. In two studies, we extend this research by demonstrating that preferences for physical traits in leaders’ faces arise from an integration of both contextual and individual differences related to perceptions of social conflict and that these effects relate only to leader choices. Theoretically, we argue that increased preferences for facial dominance in leaders reflect increased needs for enforced coordinated action when one’s group is seen to face threats from other coordinated groups rather than from random natural events. Empirically, we show that preferences for dominant-looking leaders are a function of (1) contextual primes of group-based threats rather than nature-based threats and (2) political ideology (a core measure of perceptions of group-based conflict) such that, across contexts, conservatives prefer dominant-looking leaders more than liberals. For the first time, we demonstrate that the effects of these contextual and individual differences are non-existent when subjects are asked to choose a friend instead of a leader: irrespective of ideology and context, people strongly prefer non-dominant friends. This finding adds significantly to the results of past research and provides evidence of the existence of a distinct psychology of followership that produces leader preferences that are independent of preferences for other social partners.

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Coming Back to Edmonton: Competing with Former Employers and Colleagues

Thorsten Grohsjean, Pascal Kober & Leon Zucchini
Academy of Management Journal, forthcoming

Abstract:
Drawing on human and social capital theory, research on employee mobility has discussed the benefits and drawbacks of hiring employees from rival firms. To explain the performance implications of employee mobility, the literature has focused on what moving individuals can do, but has ignored what they are willing to do. However, to fully understand what individuals will actually do at the new firm, we need to understand both. We argue that what individuals are willing to do depends on their collective and relational identity. When competing against a former employer, individuals experience a conflict in their collective identity as they identify with both organizations but can only increase the welfare of one. To reduce the conflict, individuals strengthen their identification with the new organization and de-identify with the former by competing harder against the former organization. At the relational level, individuals can still identify with their ex-colleagues without harming the welfare of the new organization by competing harder with non-former colleagues but behaving less competitively towards former colleagues. We analyze data from the National Hockey League and find strong support for our hypotheses.

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Perceiving Others’ Feelings: The Importance of Personality and Social Structure

Gary Sherman et al.
Social Psychological and Personality Science, forthcoming

Abstract:
Recent research has explored the relationship between social hierarchy and empathic accuracy — the ability to accurately infer other people’s mental states. In the current research, we tested the hypothesis that, regardless of one’s personal level of status and power, simply believing that social inequality is natural and morally acceptable (e.g., endorsing social dominance orientation, or SDO) would be negatively associated with empathic accuracy. In a sample of managers, a group for whom empathic accuracy is a valuable skill, empathic accuracy was lower for managers who possessed structural power and also for managers who endorsed social dominance, regardless of their structural power. Moreover, men were less empathically accurate than women, a relationship that may be explained by men’s higher SDO and greater structural power. These findings suggest that for empathic abilities, it matters just as much what you think about social hierarchies as it does where you stand within them.

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Adolescents gradually improve at detecting trustworthiness from the facial features of unknown adults

Wim De Neys, Astrid Hopfensitz & Jean-François Bonnefon
Journal of Economic Psychology, April 2015, Pages 17–22

Abstract:
People can (to some extent) detect trustworthiness from the facial features of social partners, and populations which underperform at this task are at a greater risk of abuse. Here we focus on situations in which adolescents make a decision whether to trust an unknown adult. Adolescents aged 13-18 (N = 540) played a trust game, in which they made decisions whether to trust unknown adults based on their picture. We show that trusting decisions become increasingly accurate with age, from a small effect size at age 13 to an effect size 2.5 times larger at age 18. We consider the implications of this result for the development of prosociality and the possible mechanisms underlying the development of trustworthiness detection from faces.

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Cooperate without looking: Why we care what people think and not just what they do

Moshe Hoffman, Erez Yoeli & Martin Nowak
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 10 February 2015, Pages 1727–1732

Abstract:
Evolutionary game theory typically focuses on actions but ignores motives. Here, we introduce a model that takes into account the motive behind the action. A crucial question is why do we trust people more who cooperate without calculating the costs? We propose a game theory model to explain this phenomenon. One player has the option to “look” at the costs of cooperation, and the other player chooses whether to continue the interaction. If it is occasionally very costly for player 1 to cooperate, but defection is harmful for player 2, then cooperation without looking is a subgame perfect equilibrium. This behavior also emerges in population-based processes of learning or evolution. Our theory illuminates a number of key phenomena of human interactions: authentic altruism, why people cooperate intuitively, one-shot cooperation, why friends do not keep track of favors, why we admire principled people, Kant’s second formulation of the Categorical Imperative, taboos, and love.

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Tandem anchoring: Informational and politeness effects of range offers in social exchange

Daniel Ames & Malia Mason
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, February 2015, Pages 254-274

Abstract:
We examined whether and why range offers (e.g., “I want $7,200 to $7,600 for my car”) matter in negotiations. A selective-attention account predicts that motivated and skeptical offer-recipients focus overwhelmingly on the attractive endpoint (i.e., a buyer would hear, in effect, “I want $7,200”). In contrast, we propose a tandem anchoring account, arguing that offer-recipients are often influenced by both endpoints as they judge the offer-maker’s reservation price (i.e., bottom line) as well as how polite they believe an extreme (nonaccommodating) counteroffer would be. In 5 studies, featuring scripted negotiation scenarios and live dyadic negotiations, we find that certain range offers yield improved settlement terms for offer-makers without relational costs, whereas others may yield relationship benefits without deal costs. We clarify the types of range offers that evoke these benefits and identify boundaries to their impact, including range width and extremity. In addition, our studies reveal evidence consistent with 2 proposed mechanisms, one involving an informational effect (both endpoints of range offers can be taken as signals of an offer-maker’s reservation price) and another involving a politeness effect (range offers can make extreme counteroffers seem less polite). Our results have implications for models of negotiation behavior and outcomes and, more broadly, for the nature of social exchange.

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The Power to Oblige: Power, Gender, Negotiation Behaviors, and Their Consequences

Noa Nelson et al.
Negotiation and Conflict Management Research, February 2015, Pages 1–24

Abstract:
This study experimentally examined how power and gender affect negotiation behaviors and how those behaviors affect negotiated outcomes. One hundred and forty-six dyads, in four combinations of power and gender, negotiated compensation agreements. In line with gender stereotypes, male negotiators were more dominating and females more obliging and somewhat more compromising. However, partially challenging the common association of power and masculinity, high-power negotiators were less dominating and more collaborating, obliging and avoiding than their low-power opponents. Generally, feminine and high-power behaviors induced agreement while masculine and low-power behaviors enhanced distributive personal gain. The study also assessed patterns of behavioral reciprocity and used sophisticated analytic tools to control for dyadic interdependence. Therefore it helps to elucidate the negotiation process and the role that power and its interplay with gender play in it.

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A structured population model suggests that long life and post-reproductive lifespan promote the evolution of cooperation

Caitlin Ross, Jan Rychtář & Olav Rueppell
Journal of Theoretical Biology, forthcoming

Abstract:
Social organization correlates with longevity across animal taxa. This correlation has been explained by selection for longevity by social evolution. The reverse causality is also conceivable but has not been sufficiently considered. We constructed a simple, spatially structured population model of asexually reproducing individuals to study the effect of temporal life history structuring on the evolution of cooperation. Individuals employed fixed strategies of cooperation or defection towards all neighbours in a basic Prisoner׳s Dilemma paradigm. Individuals aged and transitioned through different life history stages asynchronously without migration. An individual׳s death triggered a reproductive event by one immediate neighbour. The specific neighbour was chosen probabilistically according to the cumulative payoff from all local interactions. Varying the duration of pre-reproductive, reproductive, and post-reproductive life history stages, long-term simulations allowed a systematic evaluation of the influence of the duration of these specific life history stages. Our results revealed complex interactions among the effects of the three basic life history stages and the benefit to defect. Overall, a long post-reproductive stage promoted the evolution of cooperation, while a prolonged pre-reproductive stage has a negative effect. In general, the total length of life also increased the probability of the evolution of cooperation. Thus, our specific model suggests that the timing of life history transitions and total duration of life history stages may affect the evolution of cooperative behaviour. We conclude that the causation of the empirically observed association of life expectancy and sociality may be more complex than previously realized.

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Unilateral hand contractions produce motivational biases in social economic decision making

Katia Harlé & Alan Sanfey
Neuropsychology, January 2015, Pages 76-81

Objective: Unilateral hand contractions have been shown to induce relative activation of the contralateral hemisphere, which is in turn associated with distinct motivational states. Specifically, right hand contraction increases relative left activation and promotes an approach state, and left hand contractions promote relative right activation and withdrawal states. Using the same hand clenching technique, the present study extends this research to examine the incidental role of motivational tendency on interactive economic decision making.

Method: A total of 75 right-handed participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 conditions, including withdrawal/left-hand contractions, approach/right-hand contractions, and control/no contraction. Participants completed 2 well-known economic tasks, namely the Ultimatum Game (UG), Dictator Game (DG).

Results: In the UG, we found that relative to individuals in the withdrawal condition, those in the approach (right-hand contraction) condition made higher monetary offers to human partners who could either accept or reject these offers. Moreover, those in the approach condition rejected significantly more unfair offers from human partners.

Conclusions: This study provides the first evidence that hemispheric activation, using unilateral muscle contractions, may play a causal role in biasing social economic decision making. Overall, there results suggest that greater relative left frontal activation promotes reward-maximizing strategies, consistent with an approach motivation, and relative right frontal activation may decrease such strategic tendencies.

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Medial prefrontal cortex reacts to unfairness if this damages the self: A tDCS study

Claudia Civai, Carlo Miniussi & Raffaella Rumiati
Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, forthcoming

Abstract:
Neural correlates of unfairness perception depend on who is the target of the unfair treatment (Civai et al., 2010; Corradi-Dell'Acqua et al., 2013). These previous findings suggest that the activation of medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) is related to unfairness perception only when the subject of the measurement is also the person affected by the unfair treatment. We aim at demonstrating the specificity of MPFC involvement by employing transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), a technique that induces cortical excitability changes in the targeted region. We employ a modified version of the Ultimatum Game (UG), in which responders play both for themselves (myself –MS- condition) and on behalf of an unknown third-party (TP condition), where they respond to unfairness without being the target of it. We find that the application of cathodal tDCS over MPFC decreases the probability of rejecting unfair offers in MS, but not in TP; conversely, the same stimulation increases the probability of rejecting fair offers in TP, but not in MS. We confirm the hypothesis that MPFC is specifically related to processing unfairness when the self is involved, and discuss possible explanations for the opposite effect of the stimulation in TP.

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Sinking Slowly: Diversity in Propensity to Trust Predicts Downward Trust Spirals in Small Groups

Amanda Ferguson & Randall Peterson
Journal of Applied Psychology, forthcoming

Abstract:
This paper examines the phenomenon of trust spirals in small groups. Drawing on literature on the spiral reinforcement of trust, we theorize that diversity in propensity to trust has affective and cognitive consequences related to trust (i.e., feelings of frustration and perceptions of low similarity), reducing the level of experienced intragroup trust early in a group’s development. Reduced experienced trust then fuels relationship conflict and lowers trust even further over time, ultimately having a negative effect on group performance. These ideas are tested using a sample of MBA student groups surveyed at 3 time periods over 4 months. Results confirm our hypothesis that diversity in propensity to trust is sufficient to trigger a downward trust spiral and poor performance in small groups.

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Many ways to walk a mile in another’s moccasins: Type of social perspective taking and its effect on negotiation outcomes

Hunter Gehlbach et al.
Computers in Human Behavior, forthcoming

Abstract:
The process of social perspective taking holds tremendous promise as a means to facilitate conflict resolution. Despite rapidly accumulating knowledge about social perspective taking in general, scholars know little about how the type of social perspective taking affects outcomes of interest. This study tests whether different ways to “walk a mile in another’s shoes” cause different outcomes. By taking advantage of a computer-based simulation (where participants can learn about others by virtually walking around in the shoes of other characters), we assigned participants from Amazon’s Mechanical Turk (N = 842) to five different perspective taking treatments or a control condition. Results show that perspective takers who receive information about the other party foster more positive relationships and make greater concessions than participants who did not receive information about the other party. Furthermore, those who experientially learned about the other party’s perspective felt more positive about their relationships and made greater concessions during the negotiation than those who were simply provided information about the other party’s perspective. No differences were found between virtually and imaginatively taking the perspective of others. These findings suggest the importance of accounting for the type of social perspective taking in studying how this social-cognitive process may facilitate conflict resolution.

By KEVIN LEWIS | 09:00:00 AM

Saturday, February 14, 2015

Making sense

Universal Cognitive Mechanisms Explain the Cultural Success of Bloodletting

Helena Miton, Nicolas Claidière & Hugo Mercier
Evolution and Human Behavior, forthcoming

Abstract:
Bloodletting — the practice of letting blood out to cure a patient — was for centuries one of the main therapies in the West. We lay out three potential explanations for bloodletting’s cultural success: that it was efficient, that it was defended by prestigious sources — in particular ancient physicians — and that cognitive mechanisms made it a particularly attractive practice. To test these explanations, we first review the anthropological data available in eHRAF. These data reveal that bloodletting is practiced by many unrelated cultures worldwide, where it is performed for different indications and in different ways. This suggests that the success of bloodletting cannot only be explained by its medical efficiency or by the prestige of Western physicians. Instead, some universal cognitive mechanisms likely make bloodletting an attractive form of therapy. We further test this hypothesis using the technique of transmission chains. Three experiments are conducted in the U.S., a culture that does not practice bloodletting. Studies 1 and 2 reveal that stories involving bloodletting survive longer than some other common therapies, and that the most successful variants in the experiments are also the most successful variants worldwide. Study 3 shows how a story about a mundane event — an accidental cut — can turn into a story about bloodletting. This research demonstrates the potential of combining different methodologies — review of anthropological data, experiments, and modeling — to investigate cultural phenomena.

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Placebo effect of medication cost in Parkinson disease: A randomized double-blind study

Alberto Espay et al.
Neurology, forthcoming

Objective: To examine the effect of cost, a traditionally “inactive” trait of intervention, as contributor to the response to therapeutic interventions.

Methods: We conducted a prospective double-blind study in 12 patients with moderate to severe Parkinson disease and motor fluctuations (mean age 62.4 ± 7.9 years; mean disease duration 11 ± 6 years) who were randomized to a “cheap” or “expensive” subcutaneous “novel injectable dopamine agonist” placebo (normal saline). Patients were crossed over to the alternate arm approximately 4 hours later. Blinded motor assessments in the “practically defined off” state, before and after each intervention, included the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale motor subscale, the Purdue Pegboard Test, and a tapping task. Measurements of brain activity were performed using a feedback-based visual-motor associative learning functional MRI task. Order effect was examined using stratified analysis.

Results: Although both placebos improved motor function, benefit was greater when patients were randomized first to expensive placebo, with a magnitude halfway between that of cheap placebo and levodopa. Brain activation was greater upon first-given cheap but not upon first-given expensive placebo or by levodopa. Regardless of order of administration, only cheap placebo increased activation in the left lateral sensorimotor cortex and other regions.

Conclusion: Expensive placebo significantly improved motor function and decreased brain activation in a direction and magnitude comparable to, albeit less than, levodopa. Perceptions of cost are capable of altering the placebo response in clinical studies.

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You Turn Me Cold: Evidence for Temperature Contagion

Ella Cooper et al.
PLoS ONE, December 2014

Introduction: During social interactions, our own physiological responses influence those of others. Synchronization of physiological (and behavioural) responses can facilitate emotional understanding and group coherence through inter-subjectivity. Here we investigate if observing cues indicating a change in another's body temperature results in a corresponding temperature change in the observer.

Methods: Thirty-six healthy participants (age; 22.9±3.1 yrs) each observed, then rated, eight purpose-made videos (3 min duration) that depicted actors with either their right or left hand in visibly warm (warm videos) or cold water (cold videos). Four control videos with the actors' hand in front of the water were also shown. Temperature of participant observers' right and left hands was concurrently measured using a thermistor within a Wheatstone bridge with a theoretical temperature sensitivity of <0.0001°C. Temperature data were analysed in a repeated measures ANOVA (temperature × actor's hand × observer's hand).

Results: Participants rated the videos showing hands immersed in cold water as being significantly cooler than hands immersed in warm water, F(1,34) = 256.67, p<0.001. Participants' own hands also showed a significant temperature-dependent effect: hands were significantly colder when observing cold vs. warm videos F(1,34) = 13.83, p = 0.001 with post-hoc t-test demonstrating a significant reduction in participants' own left (t(35) = −3.54, p = 0.001) and right (t(35) = −2.33, p = 0.026) hand temperature during observation of cold videos but no change to warm videos (p>0.1). There was however no evidence of left-right mirroring of these temperature effects p>0.1). Sensitivity to temperature contagion was also predicted by inter-individual differences in self-report empathy.

Conclusions: We illustrate physiological contagion of temperature in healthy individuals, suggesting that empathetic understanding for primary low-level physiological challenges (as well as more complex emotions) are grounded in somatic simulation.

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The consequences of suggesting false childhood food events

Daniel Bernstein, Alan Scoboria & Robert Arnold
Acta Psychologica, March 2015, Pages 1–7

Abstract:
We combined data across eight published experiments (N = 1369) to examine the formation and consequences of false autobiographical beliefs and memories. Our path models revealed that the formation of false autobiographical belief fully mediated the pathway between suggesting to people that they had experienced a positive or negative food-related event in the past and current preference for that food. Suggestion indirectly affected intention to eat the food via change in autobiographical belief. The development of belief with and without memory produced similar changes in food preferences and behavior intention, indicating that belief in the event drives changes in suggestion-related attitudes. Finally, positive suggestions (e.g., “you loved asparagus the first time you tried it”) yielded stronger effects than negative suggestions (e.g., “you got sick eating egg salad”). These findings show that false autobiographical suggestions lead to the development of autobiographical beliefs, which in turn, have consequences for one's attitudes and behaviors.

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What Would Be Usain Bolt’s 100-Meter Sprint World Record Without Tyson Gay? Unintentional Interpersonal Synchronization Between the Two Sprinters

Manuel Varlet & Michael Richardson
Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, February 2015, Pages 36-41

Abstract:
Despite the desire of athletes to separate themselves from their competitors, to be faster or better, their performance is often influenced by those they are competing with. Here we show that the unintentional or spontaneous interpersonal synchronization of athletes’ movements may partially account for such performance modifications. We examined the 100-m final of Usain Bolt in the 12th IAAF World Championship in Athletics (Berlin, 2009) in which he broke the world record, and demonstrate that Usain Bolt and Tyson Gay who ran side-by-side throughout the race spontaneously and intermittently synchronized their steps. This finding demonstrates that even the most optimized individual motor skills can be modulated by the simple presence of another individual via interpersonal coordination processes. It extends previous research by showing that the hard constraints of individual motor performance do not overwhelm the occurrence of spontaneous interpersonal synchronization and open promising new research directions for better understanding and improving athletic performance.

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On the Importance of Being Vocal: Saying “Ow” Improves Pain Tolerance

Genevieve Swee & Annett Schirmer
Journal of Pain, forthcoming

Abstract:
Vocalizing is a ubiquitous pain behavior. Here we investigated whether it helps alleviate pain and sought to discern potential underlying mechanisms. Participants were asked to immerse one hand into painfully cold water. On separate trials, they said “ow”, heard a recording of them saying “ow”, heard a recording of another person saying “ow”, pressed a button, or sat passively. Compared to sitting passively, saying “ow” increased the duration of hand immersion. Although on average, participants predicted this effect, their expectations were uncorrelated with pain tolerance. Like vocalizing, button pressing increased the duration of hand immersion and this increase was positively correlated with the vocalizing effect. Hearing one's own or another person's “ow” were not analgesic. Together, these results provide first evidence that vocalizing helps individuals cope with pain. Moreover, they suggest that motor more than other processes contribute to this effect.

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Exploring the Secrecy Burden: Secrets, Preoccupation, and Perceptual Judgments

Michael Slepian, Nicholas Camp & E.J. Masicampo
Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, forthcoming

Abstract:
Recent work suggests that secrecy is perceived as burdensome. A secrecy–burden relationship would have a number of consequences for cognitive, perceptual, social, and health psychology, but the reliability of these influences, and potential mechanisms that support such influences are unknown. Across 4 studies, the current work examines both the reliability of, and mechanisms that support, the influence of secrecy processes upon a judgment that varies with diminished resources (i.e., judgments of hill slant). The current work finds that a manipulation of secret “size” fails to reliably predict judged hill slant, whereas measurement and manipulation of preoccupation with a secret does reliably predict judged hill slant. Moreover, these effects are found to be mediated by judged effort to keep the secret, consistent with a resource-based mechanism of the burdens of secrecy.

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The placebo effect in inflammatory skin reactions: The influence of verbal suggestion on itch and weal size

Margot Darragh et al.
Journal of Psychosomatic Research, forthcoming

Purpose: To investigate suggestion-induced placebo effects in inflammatory skin reactions.

Methods: A healthy sample of volunteers (N = 48) attended two laboratory sessions. In each, a local short term inflammatory skin reaction was induced with histamine. Participants were told that one session was a control session and the other was a treatment session in which an antihistamine cream would be applied to the arm to reduce the size of the weal and the experience of itch. Inert aqueous cream was applied in both sessions. Participants were randomly allocated to undergo either the control or the treatment session first.

Results: The placebo manipulation successfully reduced self-reported itch from the control to the placebo treatment session, but no placebo effect was demonstrated in weal size. Order effects were observed such that only those who underwent control procedures first had a smaller weal in the placebo treatment session as compared to the control session. The same order effect was seen for reported itch at one minute post histamine administration, but this disappeared at the three and five minute measures.

Conclusion: Findings suggest that explicit verbal suggestion can reduce the experience of itch. In addition to conscious awareness, a concrete representation of the suggested changes gained from prior experience to the stimulus may be an important component of placebo effects on inflammatory skin reactions.

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Threat is in the sex of the beholder: Men find weapons faster than do women

Danielle Sulikowski & Darren Burke
Evolutionary Psychology, October 2014, Pages 913-931

Abstract:
In visual displays, people locate potentially threatening stimuli, such as snakes, spiders, and weapons, more quickly than similar benign stimuli, such as beetles and gadgets. Such biases are likely adaptive, facilitating fast responses to potential threats. Currently, and historically, men have engaged in more weapons-related activities (fighting and hunting) than women. If biases of visual attention for weapons result from selection pressures related to these activities, then we would predict such biases to be stronger in men than in women. The current study reports the results of two visual search experiments, in which men showed a stronger bias of attention toward guns and knives than did women, whether the weapons were depicted wielded or not. When the weapons were depicted wielded, both sexes searched for them with more caution than when they were not. Neither of these effects extended reliably to syringes, a non-weapon — yet potentially threatening — object. The findings are discussed with respect to the “weapons effect” and social coercion theory.

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Anticipatory Control Through Associative Learning of Subliminal Relations: Invisible May Be Better Than Visible

Ausaf Farooqui & Tom Manly
Psychological Science, forthcoming

Abstract:
We showed that anticipatory cognitive control could be unconsciously instantiated through subliminal cues that predicted enhanced future control needs. In task-switching experiments, one of three subliminal cues preceded each trial. Participants had no conscious experience or knowledge of these cues, but their performance was significantly improved on switch trials after cues that predicted task switches (but not particular tasks). This utilization of subliminal information was flexible and adapted to a change in cues predicting task switches and occurred only when switch trials were difficult and effortful. When cues were consciously visible, participants were unable to discern their relevance and could not use them to enhance switch performance. Our results show that unconscious cognition can implicitly use subliminal information in a goal-directed manner for anticipatory control, and they also suggest that subliminal representations may be more conducive to certain forms of associative learning.

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Why do highly visible people appear more important? Affect mediates visual fluency effects in impression formation

Joseph Forgas
Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, forthcoming

Abstract:
People who are highly visible may be perceived as also more important and influential. Can good or bad moods influence the extent to which people rely on such irrelevant visual fluency cues when forming impressions? Based on recent work on affect and cognition, two experiments predicted and found that positive affect increased, and negative affect eliminated the effects of visual fluency on impressions. In Experiment 1, after an autobiographical mood induction participants read about two people whose visual fluency was factorially manipulated by changing the size and colour of their photos. Both mood and visual fluency influenced impressions, and there was a significant mood by visibility interaction such that positive affect increased, and negative affect eliminated the effects of visual fluency. Experiment 2 replicated these results with a different mood induction, and also found that mood-induced differences in information processing style mediated these effects. The relevance of these findings for impression formation in everyday situations is considered, and their implications for recent affect-cognition theories are discussed.

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What have I just done? Anchoring, self-knowledge, and judgments of recent behavior

Nathan Cheek, Sarah Coe-Odess & Barry Schwartz
Judgment and Decision Making, January 2015, Pages 76–85

Abstract:
Can numerical anchors influence people’s judgments of their own recent behavior? We investigate this question in a series of six studies. In Study 1, subjects’ judgments of how many anagrams they were given assimilated to numerical anchors. Subjects’ judgments of how many math problems they correctly solved and how many stairs they had just walked up were also influenced by numerical anchors (Studies 2A and 3A), and this occurred even when the anchors were extreme and nonsensical (Studies 2B and 3B). Thus, our first five studies showed that anchors can affect people’s judgments of their own recent behavior. Finally, in Study 4, we tested the hypothesis that self-knowledge, despite not eliminating anchoring effects, does still attenuate anchoring. However, we found no evidence that self-knowledge reduced anchoring: subjects’ judgments of their own recent behavior and subjects’ judgments of other people’s recent behavior were equally influenced by anchors. We discuss implications of these findings for research on domain knowledge and anchoring, as well as for research on the malleability of memory.

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A Sign of Things to Come: Behavioral Change Through Dynamic Iconography

Luca Cian, Aradhna Krishna & Ryan Elder
Journal of Consumer Research, forthcoming

Abstract:
We propose that features of static visuals can lead to perceived movement (via dynamic imagery) and prepare the observer for action. We operationalize our research within the context of warning sign icons and show how a subtle differences in iconography can affect human behavioral response. Across five studies incorporating multiple methodologies and technologies (click-data heat maps, driving simulations, surveys, reaction time, and eye tracking), we show that warning sign icons which evoke more (vs. less) perceived movement lead to a quicker propensity to act because they suggest greater risk to oneself or others and increase attentional vigilance. Icons used in our studies include children crossings signs near schools, wet floor signs in store settings, and shopping cart crossings near malls. Our findings highlight the importance of incorporating dynamic elements into icon design to promote imagery thereby eliciting desired and responsible consumer behavior.

By KEVIN LEWIS | 09:00:00 AM

Friday, February 13, 2015

Divisive

Trade in Polarized America: The Border Effect between Red States and Blue States

Hirokazu Ishise & Miwa Matsuo
Economic Inquiry, forthcoming

Abstract:
Political and cultural polarization in the United States is widely discussed, but does it relate to any economic disconnection among states? We estimate the “border” effect between Red and Blue states using the gravity equation with a nonlinear generalized method of moments estimator to simultaneously overcome the problems associated with endogeneity, cross-state price differences, and zero-trade flow. The border effect is robustly confirmed for the 2000s, while not so robustly detected for the 1990s. Notably, in 2007, the border reduces trade between Red and Blue states to approximately 75% of the trade within each set of states. This estimated border effect is much smaller than the United States–Canada national border effect estimated by Anderson and van Wincoop (2003), and by Feenstra (2002), yet is comparable to the border effect that Nitsch and Wolf (2009) find for the former West and East Germanies approximately 10 years after reunification. While the border effect in Germany after reunification is decreasing, the border effect between the Red and Blue states is emerging. We also find the border effect is more significant for consumption, rather than intermediate, goods. The border effect is an important indicator for a potential dismantling of the economic connectivity in the United States.

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Bias in Cable News: Real Effects and Polarization

Gregory Martin & Ali Yurukoglu
NBER Working Paper, December 2014

Abstract:
We jointly measure the persuasive effects of slanted news and tastes for like-minded news. The key ingredient is using channel positions as exogenous shifters of cable news viewership. Local cable positions affect viewership by cable subscribers. They do not correlate with viewership by local satellite subscribers, who are observably similar to cable subscribers. We estimate a model of voters who select into watching slanted news, and whose ideologies evolve as a result. We estimate that Fox News increases the likelihood of voting Republican by 0.9 points among viewers induced into watching four additional minutes per week by differential channel positions.

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Does Public Election Funding Create More Extreme Legislators? Evidence from Arizona and Maine

Seth Masket & Michael Miller
State Politics & Policy Quarterly, March 2015, Pages 24-40

Abstract:
We investigate whether Maine and Arizona’s Clean Elections laws, which provide public funding for state legislative candidates, are responsible for producing a new cadre of legislators who are unusually ideologically extreme. We find that there is essentially no important difference in the legislative voting behavior of “clean” funded legislators and traditionally funded ones in either Arizona or Maine: those who are financed by private donors are no more or less ideologically extreme than those who are supported by the state. This finding calls into question some concerns about the effects on polarization of money generally and public funding in particular.

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The Partisan Brain: How Dissonant Science Messages Lead Conservatives and Liberals to (Dis)Trust Science

Erik Nisbet, Kathryn Cooper & Kelly Garrett
ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, March 2015, Pages 36-66

Abstract:
There has been deepening concern about political polarization in public attitudes toward the scientific community. The “intrinsic thesis” attributes this polarization to psychological deficiencies among conservatives as compared to liberals. The “contextual thesis” makes no such claims about inherent psychological differences between conservatives and liberals, but rather points to interacting institutional and psychological factors as the forces driving polarization. We evaluate the evidence for both theses in the context of developing and testing a theoretical model of audience response to dissonant science communication. Conducting a national online experiment (N = 1,500), we examined audience reactions to both conservative-dissonant and liberal-dissonant science messages and consequences for trust in the scientific community. Our results suggest liberals and conservatives alike react negatively to dissonant science communication, resulting in diminished trust of the scientific community. We discuss how our findings link to the larger debate about political polarization of science and implications for science communicators.

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Partisanship and Electoral Accountability: Evidence from the UK Expenses Scandal

Andrew Eggers
Quarterly Journal of Political Science, Fall 2014, Pages 441-472

Abstract:
Why do voters support corrupt politicians? One reason is that voters care about both corruption and partisan control of government; the more voters care about which party wins, the less they can deter individual wrongdoing. I highlight this tradeoff in the 2009 UK expenses scandal, showing that electoral accountability was less effective in constituencies where the partisan stakes of the local contest were higher: not only did corrupt MPs in these constituencies suffer smaller punishments, but these MPs were also more likely to be implicated in the scandal in the first place. The findings point to an under-appreciated consequence of partisanship (and underlying causes such as strong party systems and polarization at the elite or mass level) for the electoral control of politicians.

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Fear Among the Extremes: How Political Ideology Predicts Negative Emotions and Outgroup Derogation

Jan-Willem van Prooijen et al.
Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, forthcoming

Abstract:
The “rigidity of the right” hypothesis predicts that particularly the political right experiences fear and derogates outgroups. We propose that above and beyond that, the political extremes (at both sides of the spectrum) are more likely to display these responses than political moderates. Results of a large-scale sample reveal the predicted quadratic term on socio-economic fear. Moreover, although the political right is more likely to derogate the specific category of immigrants, we find a quadratic effect on derogation of a broad range of societal categories. Both extremes also experience stronger negative emotions about politics than politically moderate respondents. Finally, the quadratic effects on derogation of societal groups and negative political emotions were mediated by socio-economic fear, particularly among left- and right-wing extremists. It is concluded that negative emotions and outgroup derogation flourish among the extremes.

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The Role of Ideology in State Legislative Elections

Nathaniel Birkhead
Legislative Studies Quarterly, February 2015, Pages 55–82

Abstract:
In this article, I examine the effect of incumbent ideology on elections in 45 state legislatures, showing that ideological extremists are more likely to be opposed in the general election than are moderates and that extremists tend to do worse in challenged elections than moderates do. I also explore the intervening role of legislative professionalism, finding that in the majority of state legislatures moderation is rewarded, though in the most professionalized legislatures, incumbents are actually rewarded for extremism. These results show that despite the informational disadvantage of the electorate, the ideology of state legislators is an important factor in elections.

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Polarization without Parties: Term Limits and Legislative Partisanship in Nebraska’s Unicameral Legislature

Seth Masket & Boris Shor
State Politics & Policy Quarterly, March 2015, Pages 67-90

Abstract:
Despite a long history of nonpartisanship, the Nebraska state legislature has polarized rapidly within the past decade. Using interviews and campaign finance records, we examine politics in the modern Unicam to investigate nonpartisan polarization. We find that newly instituted term limits created opportunities for the state’s political parties to recruit and finance candidates in an increasingly partisan fashion. Social network analysis suggests that there is a growing level of structure to campaign donations, with political elites increasingly less likely to contribute across party lines. The results offer a compelling example of parties overcoming institutions designed to eliminate them.

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Fair and Balanced? Experimental Evidence on Partisan Bias in Grading

Paul Musgrave & Mark Rom
American Politics Research, forthcoming

Abstract:
Is grading polarized in political science classrooms? We offer experimental evidence that suggests it is not. Many have argued that instructors’ grading in political science classrooms is skewed by the political characteristics of the instructor, the student, or an interaction between the two. Yet the evaluations of whether such biases exist has been asserted and denied with little evidence — even though prominent theories in political science suggest that the charge is not entirely implausible. Using a set of anonymous essays by undergraduates graded by teaching assistants at a variety of institutions, we test for the presence of bias in a framework that avoids the usual selection bias issues that confound attempts at inference. After evaluating the evidence carefully, we find that the evidence for bias is much weaker than activists claim.

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Does Partisanship Shape Attitudes toward Science and Public Policy? The Case for Ideology and Religion

Joshua Blank & Daron Shaw
ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, March 2015, Pages 18-35

Abstract:
Despite the apparent partisan divide over issues such as global warming and hydraulic fracturing, little is known about what shapes citizens’ willingness to accept scientific recommendations on political issues. We examine the extent to which Democrats, Republicans, and independents are likely to defer to scientific expertise in matters of policy. Our study draws on an October 2013 U.S. national survey of 2,000 respondents. We find that partisan differences exist: our data show that most Americans see science as relevant to policy, but that their willingness to defer to science in policy matters varies considerably across issues. While party, ideology, and religious beliefs clearly influence attitudes toward science, Republicans are not notably skeptical about accepting scientific recommendations. Rather, it seems that Democrats are particularly receptive to the advice and counsel of scientists, when compared to both independents and Republicans.

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Rationalizing Conflict: The Polarizing Role of Accountability in Ideological Decision Making

Carly Wayne et al.
Journal of Conflict Resolution, forthcoming

Abstract:
How does accountability impact political decisions? Though previous research on accountability has demonstrated its potential effects in the realms of business, elections, and more, very little research has explored the effect of citizen accountability in highly ideological, intractable, and political conflicts. This article addresses this issue, looking at the unique interaction between accountability and ideology on Israeli citizens’ political attitudes regarding the Israeli–Palestinian conflict. The results of two experimental studies in Israel reveal that accountable individuals behave in significantly more ideologically partisan ways than their nonaccountable counterparts. Moreover, this polarization is dependent on the specific conflict context, with leftists more affected by the issue of negotiations and rightists by security concerns. This signals that ideological polarization under accountability may depend on the “issue ownership” each ideological group feels toward the specific conflict context and its corresponding social goal of projecting ideological consistency on these issues.

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Political Extremism Predicts Belief in Conspiracy Theories

Jan-Willem van Prooijen, André Krouwel & Thomas Pollet
Social Psychological and Personality Science, forthcoming

Abstract:
Historical records suggest that the political extremes — at both the “left” and the “right” — substantially endorsed conspiracy beliefs about other-minded groups. The present contribution empirically tests whether extreme political ideologies, at either side of the political spectrum, are positively associated with an increased tendency to believe in conspiracy theories. Four studies conducted in the United States and the Netherlands revealed a quadratic relationship between strength of political ideology and conspiracy beliefs about various political issues. Moreover, participants’ belief in simple political solutions to societal problems mediated conspiracy beliefs among both left- and right-wing extremists. Finally, the effects described here were not attributable to general attitude extremity. Our conclusion is that political extremism and conspiracy beliefs are strongly associated due to a highly structured thinking style that is aimed at making sense of societal events.

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Listening to Outsiders: The Impact of Messenger Nationality on Transnational Persuasion in the United States

Nick Dragojlovic
International Studies Quarterly, forthcoming

Abstract:
Does nationality disadvantage foreign actors when they attempt to persuade the American public? Using data from an online survey experiment administered to a sample of US citizens, we find that the nationality of British and French advocates only reduces persuasiveness among American Republicans with low levels of political awareness. Among American Democrats, credible French or British advocates can be more persuasive than a comparable American source. Overall, foreign messengers from friendly countries are not disadvantaged by nationality, as nationality has low political salience and other domestic characteristics (such as partisanship) dominate subjects' heuristic processing. When a foreign advocate's nationality does play a role, however, it is likely to lead to polarization in domestic audience attitudes.

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Neither Ideologues nor Agnostics: Alternative Voters’ Belief System in an Age of Partisan Politics

Delia Baldassarri & Amir Goldberg
American Journal of Sociology, July 2014, Pages 45-95

Abstract:
How do Americans organize their political beliefs? This article argues that party polarization and the growing prominence of moral issues in recent decades have catalyzed different responses by different groups of Americans. The article investigates systematic heterogeneity in the organization of political attitudes using relational class analysis, a graph-based method for detecting multiple patterns of opinion in survey data. Three subpopulations, each characterized by a distinctive way of organizing its political beliefs, are identified: ideologues, whose political attitudes strongly align with either liberal or conservative categories; alternatives, who are instead morally conservative but economically liberal, or vice versa; and agnostics, who exhibit weak associations between political beliefs. Individuals’ sociodemographic profiles, particularly their income, education, and religiosity, lie at the core of the different ways in which they understand politics. Results show that while ideologues have gone through a process of issue alignment, alternatives have grown increasingly apart from the political agendas of both parties. The conflictual presence of conservative and liberal preferences has often been resolved by alternative voters in favor of the Republican Party.

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Red States, Blue States, and Brain States: Issue Framing, Partisanship, and the Future of Neurolaw in the United States

Francis Shen & Dena Gromet
ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, March 2015, Pages 86-101

Abstract:
Advances in neuroscience are beginning to shape law and public policy, giving rise to the field of “neurolaw.” The impact of neuroscientific evidence on how laws are written and interpreted in practice will depend in part on how neurolaw is understood by the public. Drawing on a nationally representative telephone survey experiment, this article presents the first evidence on public approval of neurolaw. We find that the public is generally neutral in its support for neuroscience-based legal reforms. However, how neurolaw is framed affects support based on partisanship: Republicans’ approval of neurolaw decreases when neuroscience is seen as primarily serving to reduce offender culpability, whereas Democrats’ approval is unaffected by how neurolaw is framed. These results suggest that both framing and partisanship may shape the future of neuroscience-based reforms in law and policy.

By KEVIN LEWIS | 09:00:00 AM

Thursday, February 12, 2015

The way we do it

Hierarchical cultural values predict success and mortality in high-stakes teams

Eric Anicich, Roderick Swaab & Adam Galinsky
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 3 February 2015, Pages 1338–1343

Abstract:
Functional accounts of hierarchy propose that hierarchy increases group coordination and reduces conflict. In contrast, dysfunctional accounts claim that hierarchy impairs performance by preventing low-ranking team members from voicing their potentially valuable perspectives and insights. The current research presents evidence for both the functional and dysfunctional accounts of hierarchy within the same dataset. Specifically, we offer empirical evidence that hierarchical cultural values affect the outcomes of teams in high-stakes environments through group processes. Experimental data from a sample of expert mountain climbers from 27 countries confirmed that climbers expect that a hierarchical culture leads to improved team coordination among climbing teams, but impaired psychological safety and information sharing compared with an egalitarian culture. An archival analysis of 30,625 Himalayan mountain climbers from 56 countries on 5,104 expeditions found that hierarchy both elevated and killed in the Himalayas: Expeditions from more hierarchical countries had more climbers reach the summit, but also more climbers die along the way. Importantly, we established the role of group processes by showing that these effects occurred only for group, but not solo, expeditions. These findings were robust to controlling for environmental factors, risk preferences, expedition-level characteristics, country-level characteristics, and other cultural values. Overall, this research demonstrates that endorsing cultural values related to hierarchy can simultaneously improve and undermine group performance.

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Psychological Language on Twitter Predicts County-Level Heart Disease Mortality

Johannes Eichstaedt et al.
Psychological Science, February 2015, Pages 159-169

Abstract:
Hostility and chronic stress are known risk factors for heart disease, but they are costly to assess on a large scale. We used language expressed on Twitter to characterize community-level psychological correlates of age-adjusted mortality from atherosclerotic heart disease (AHD). Language patterns reflecting negative social relationships, disengagement, and negative emotions — especially anger — emerged as risk factors; positive emotions and psychological engagement emerged as protective factors. Most correlations remained significant after controlling for income and education. A cross-sectional regression model based only on Twitter language predicted AHD mortality significantly better than did a model that combined 10 common demographic, socioeconomic, and health risk factors, including smoking, diabetes, hypertension, and obesity. Capturing community psychological characteristics through social media is feasible, and these characteristics are strong markers of cardiovascular mortality at the community level.

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Children’s inequity aversion depends on culture: A cross-cultural comparison

Markus Paulus
Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, forthcoming

Abstract:
Recent work showed the presence of strong forms of inequity aversion in young children. When presented with an uneven number of items, children would rather tend to throw one item away than to distribute them unequally between two anonymous others. The current study examined whether or not this pattern is a universal part of typical development by investigating 6- and 7-year-old Ugandan children. Results revealed that the Ugandan children, in contrast to their U.S. peers, tended to distribute the resources unequally rather than to throw the remaining resource away. This points to cross-cultural differences in the development of children’s fairness-related decision making.

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Social Structure, Infectious Diseases, Disasters, Secularism, and Cultural Change in America

Igor Grossmann & Michael Varnum
Psychological Science, forthcoming

Abstract:
Why do cultures change? The present work examined cultural change in eight cultural-level markers, or correlates, of individualism in the United States, all of which increased over the course of the 20th century: frequency of individualist themes in books, preference for uniqueness in baby naming, frequency of single-child relative to multichild families, frequency of single-generation relative to multigeneration households, percentage of adults and percentage of older adults living alone, small family size, and divorce rates (relative to marriage rates). We tested five key hypotheses regarding cultural change in individualism-collectivism. As predicted by previous theories, changes in socioeconomic structure, pathogen prevalence, and secularism accompanied changes in individualism averaged across all measures. The relationship with changes in individualism was less robust for urbanization. Contrary to previous theories, changes in individualism were positively (as opposed to negatively) related to the frequency of disasters. Time-lagged analyses suggested that only socioeconomic structure had a robust effect on individualism; changes in socioeconomic structure preceded changes in individualism. Implications for anthropology, psychology, and sociology are discussed.

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“Heroes” and “Villains” of World History across Cultures

Katja Hanke et al.
PLoS ONE, February 2015

Abstract:
Emergent properties of global political culture were examined using data from the World History Survey (WHS) involving 6,902 university students in 37 countries evaluating 40 figures from world history. Multidimensional scaling and factor analysis techniques found only limited forms of universality in evaluations across Western, Catholic/Orthodox, Muslim, and Asian country clusters. The highest consensus across cultures involved scientific innovators, with Einstein having the most positive evaluation overall. Peaceful humanitarians like Mother Theresa and Gandhi followed. There was much less cross-cultural consistency in the evaluation of negative figures, led by Hitler, Osama bin Laden, and Saddam Hussein. After more traditional empirical methods (e.g., factor analysis) failed to identify meaningful cross-cultural patterns, Latent Profile Analysis (LPA) was used to identify four global representational profiles: Secular and Religious Idealists were overwhelmingly prevalent in Christian countries, and Political Realists were common in Muslim and Asian countries. We discuss possible consequences and interpretations of these different representational profiles.

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Language and Female Economic Participation

Victor Gay et al.
University of Chicago Working Paper, January 2015

Abstract:
This paper explores the relationship between the use of gender in language and the gender gap in economic participation. Using the American Community Survey, we show that among female migrants to the U.S., those who speak a language which makes sex-based grammatical gender distinctions exhibit lower labor force participation, hours worked, and weeks worked during the year, with larger effects for languages with more pervasive gender elements. To account for the impact of correlated origin country influences, we employ a fixed effects strategy and obtain identification off of variation in language spoken across immigrants from the same country.

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Money vs. Prestige: Cultural Attitudes and Occupational Choices

Crystal Zhan
Labour Economics, January 2015, Pages 44–56

Abstract:
This paper studies the occupational choices of highly educated native-born American males and links their choices to cultural attitudes towards pecuniary rewards and social prestige in their ancestral countries. These cultural attitudes were reported in the World Values Survey, which surveyed individuals’ opinions on a series of subjects in various societies. The empirical analysis verifies that cultural attitudes play a significant role in occupational choices: when other factors that may be correlated with one’s opportunity and advantage are controlled for, a stronger cultural demand for pecuniary rewards leads individuals to choose more lucrative jobs, and a stronger demand for social prestige leads them to choose more prestigious jobs. The paper further explores neighborhood effects on cultural transmission and finds a positive relationship between the proportion of the population from the same ancestry in the residential area and the effects of cultural attitudes on occupational selection.

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Genetic polymorphisms predict national differences in life history strategy and time orientation

Michael Minkov & Michael Harris Bond
Personality and Individual Differences, April 2015, Pages 204–215

Abstract:
The existence of a genetic factor behind group-level differences in life history strategy (LHS) has long been disputed. A number of recent studies suggest that some polymorphisms in the androgen receptor gene AR, the dopamine receptor gene DRD4, and the 5-HTTLPR VNTR of the serotonin transporter gene are associated with risk acceptance versus prudence and a short-term versus long-term time orientation, which are important aspects of LHS. We integrated studies from diverse nations reporting the prevalence of these three polymorphisms for many countries. We collected national indices for each of the three polymorphisms and found that they define a strong, single factor, yielding a single LHS-related, national genetic index. As expected, this index is strongly associated with reported national measures of LHS and time orientation, even after controlling for socioeconomic variables. The genetic effect seems especially strong across societies with high socioeconomic inequality.

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The Different Behavioral Intentions of Collectivists and Individualists in Response to Social Exclusion

Michaela Pfundmair et al.
Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, March 2015, Pages 363-378

Abstract:
We investigated how participants with collectivistic and individualistic orientation cope with social exclusion on a behavioral level. In Studies 1 and 2, we found participants with more individualistic orientation to indicate more antisocial behavioral intentions in response to exclusion than in response to inclusion; however, participants with more collectivistic orientation did not differ in their behavioral intentions between exclusion and inclusion. In the third and fourth study, we replicated our findings across cultures: German and U.S. participants indicated more antisocial and avoiding behavioral intentions under exclusion than under inclusion, whereas Turkish and Indian participants did not differ in their behavioral intentions between exclusion and inclusion. In Studies 3 and 4, only German and U.S. participants were significantly affected by exclusion, showing more negative mood, which correlated with their behavioral intentions. In Study 4, the different behavioral intentions of collectivists and individualists were mediated by a different threat experience. The findings emphasize the role of self-construal and culture, as well as the self-threat inherent in exclusion.

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A Gender-Based Theory of the Origin of the Caste System of India

Chris Bidner & Mukesh Eswaran
Journal of Development Economics, May 2015, Pages 142–158

Abstract:
We propose a theory of the origins of India’s caste system by explicitly recognizing the productivity of women in complementing their husbands’ occupation-specific skill. The theory explains the core features of the caste system: its hereditary and hierarchical nature, and its insistence on endogamy (marriage only within castes). Endogamy is embraced by a group to minimize an externality that arises when group members marry outsiders. We demonstrate why the caste system embodies gender asymmetries in punishments for violations of endogamy and tolerates hypergamy (marrying up) more than hypogamy (marrying down). Our model also speaks to other aspects of caste, such as commensality restrictions and arranged/child marriages. We suggest that India’s caste system is so unique because the Brahmins sought to preserve and orally transmit the Hindu scriptures for over a millennium with no script. We show that economic considerations were of utmost importance in the emergence of the caste system.

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Climate, vocal folds, and tonal languages: Connecting the physiological and geographic dots

Caleb Everett, Damián Blasi & Seán Roberts
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 3 February 2015, Pages 1322–1327

Abstract:
We summarize a number of findings in laryngology demonstrating that perturbations of phonation, including increased jitter and shimmer, are associated with desiccated ambient air. We predict that, given the relative imprecision of vocal fold vibration in desiccated versus humid contexts, arid and cold ecologies should be less amenable, when contrasted to warm and humid ecologies, to the development of languages with phonemic tone, especially complex tone. This prediction is supported by data from two large independently coded databases representing 3,700+ languages. Languages with complex tonality have generally not developed in very cold or otherwise desiccated climates, in accordance with the physiologically based predictions. The predicted global geographic–linguistic association is shown to operate within continents, within major language families, and across language isolates. Our results offer evidence that human sound systems are influenced by environmental factors.

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Problem-Solving Effort and Success in Innovation Contests: The Role of National Wealth and National Culture

Jesse Bockstedt, Cheryl Druehl & Anant Mishra
Journal of Operations Management, forthcoming

Abstract:
Innovation contests allow firms to harness specialized skills and services from globally dispersed participants for solutions to business problems. Such contests provide a rich setting for Operations Management (OM) scholars to explore problem solving in global labor markets as firms continue to unbundle their innovation value chains. In this study, we examine the implications of specific types of diversity in innovation contests on problem-solving effort and success. First, we conceptualize diversity among contestants in terms of national wealth (measured as Gross Domestic Product per capita (GDPP) adjusted for purchasing power parity) and national culture (measured using the culture dimensions of performance orientation and uncertainty avoidance) and examine how such factors influence problem-solving effort. Next, we examine how differences between contestants and contest holders in terms of the above factors influence contest outcomes. Using data from a popular online innovation contest platform and country-level archival data, we find that contestants from countries with lower levels of GDPP are more likely to exert greater problem-solving effort compared to other contestants. With regards to national culture, we find that performance orientation and uncertainty avoidance have positive and negative effects, respectively, each of which weakens with increasing levels of GDPP. Finally, our analysis provides evidence of homophily effects indicating that contestants who share greater similarities with the contest holder in terms of national wealth and national culture are more likely to be successful in a contest. We discuss the implications of the study's findings for contest holders and platform owners who organize innovation contests, and for emerging research on innovation contests.

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Expression of Anger and Ill Health in Two Cultures: An Examination of Inflammation and Cardiovascular Risk

Shinobu Kitayama et al.
Psychological Science, February 2015, Pages 211-220

Abstract:
Expression of anger is associated with biological health risk (BHR) in Western cultures. However, recent evidence documenting culturally divergent functions of the expression of anger suggests that its link with BHR may be moderated by culture. To test this prediction, we examined large probability samples of both Japanese and Americans using multiple measures of BHR, including pro-inflammatory markers (interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein) and indices of cardiovascular malfunction (systolic blood pressure and ratio of total to HDL cholesterol). We found that the link between greater expression of anger and increased BHR was robust for Americans. As predicted, however, this association was diametrically reversed for Japanese, among whom greater expression of anger predicted reduced BHR. These patterns were unique to the expressive facet of anger and remained after we controlled for age, gender, health status, health behaviors, social status, and reported experience of negative emotions. Implications for sociocultural modulation of bio-physiological responses are discussed.

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Rate of language evolution is affected by population size

Lindell Bromham et al.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, forthcoming

Abstract:
The effect of population size on patterns and rates of language evolution is controversial. Do languages with larger speaker populations change faster due to a greater capacity for innovation, or do smaller populations change faster due to more efficient diffusion of innovations? Do smaller populations suffer greater loss of language elements through founder effects or drift, or do languages with more speakers lose features due to a process of simplification? Revealing the influence of population size on the tempo and mode of language evolution not only will clarify underlying mechanisms of language change but also has practical implications for the way that language data are used to reconstruct the history of human cultures. Here, we provide, to our knowledge, the first empirical, statistically robust test of the influence of population size on rates of language evolution, controlling for the evolutionary history of the populations and formally comparing the fit of different models of language evolution. We compare rates of gain and loss of cognate words for basic vocabulary in Polynesian languages, an ideal test case with a well-defined history. We demonstrate that larger populations have higher rates of gain of new words whereas smaller populations have higher rates of word loss. These results show that demographic factors can influence rates of language evolution and that rates of gain and loss are affected differently. These findings are strikingly consistent with general predictions of evolutionary models.

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How Is Men’s Conformity to Masculine Norms Related to Their Body Image? Masculinity and Muscularity Across Western Countries

Kristina Holmqvist Gattario et al.
Psychology of Men & Masculinity, forthcoming

Abstract:
Previous research has suggested that men’s conformity to masculine norms (CMN) is an important correlate of men’s drive for muscularity. The present study aimed to further delineate the relationship between masculinity and men’s body image by examining various dimensions of CMN in relation to various dimensions of men’s body image (muscularity, leanness, and fitness) in a cross-national sample. Participants comprised young men from the United States (n = 192), the United Kingdom (n = 141), Australia (n = 160), and Sweden (n = 142). Multigroup path analyses showed that CMN was related to drive for muscularity, leanness, and fitness in all 4 countries, but there were differences across countries in which dimensions of CMN predicted men’s body image. Whereas conformity to the masculine norm of winning was a salient predictor across the 4 countries, conformity to the norm of risk-taking was linked to Australian men’s body image, and conformity to the norm of violence to British men’s body image. The findings support previous research suggesting that men’s endorsement of the male gender role plays a significant role in their desire for an ideal body, but the results uniquely document that this relationship may differ across countries.

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Capturing Culture: A New Method to Estimate Exogenous Cultural Effects Using Migrant Populations

Javier Polavieja
American Sociological Review, February 2015, Pages 166-191

Abstract:
We know that culture influences people’s behavior. Yet estimating the exact extent of this influence poses a formidable methodological challenge for the social sciences. This is because preferences and beliefs are endogenous, that is, they are shaped by individuals’ own experiences and affected by the same macro-structural conditions that constrain their actions. This study introduces a new method to overcome endogeneity problems in the estimation of cultural effects by using migrant populations. This innovative method uses imputed traits, generated from non-migrating equivalents observed at the country of origin, as instruments for immigrants’ own cultural traits measured at the country of destination. By construction, imputed traits are exogenous to immigrants’ host social environment. The predicted power of imputed traits over observed traits in instrumental-variable estimation captures the non-idiosyncratic component of preferences and beliefs that migrants and non-migrating equivalents share as members of the same national-origin group, that is, their culture. I use this innovative method to estimate the net exogenous impact of traditional values on female labor-force participation in Europe. I find that this impact is much larger than standard regression methods would suggest.

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It's Not Just Numbers: Cultural Identities Influence How Nutrition Information Influences the Valuation of Foods

Pierrick Gomez & Carlos Torelli
Journal of Consumer Psychology, forthcoming

Abstract:
This research examines how cultural mindsets cued by a salient identity can influence how consumers interpret seemingly benign nutrition information in foods. Results show that nutrition information can be incongruent with the cultural norm of food enjoyment distinctively associated with French (and not American) identity. This occurs because of a conflict between the motivation to enjoy foods activated by a salient French identity and the utilitarian nature of nutrition information in foods — that does not belong to a French-culture mindset. Three studies demonstrate that French (and not American) consumers with a salient cultural identity are more sensitive (i.e., perceive as riskier for their health) and evaluate more negatively foods that display (vs. not) nutrition information. Furthermore, this devaluation effect is mediated by anticipated feelings that the foods would not be enjoyable. Providing further evidence for the motivational inconsistency between the culturally-distinctive norm of food enjoyment cued by a salient French-culture mindset, French (and not American) consumers with a salient (vs. not) cultural identity experienced more disfluency when processing nutrition information in foods.

By KEVIN LEWIS | 09:00:00 AM

Wednesday, February 11, 2015

An easy sell

The Power of Repetition: Repetitive Lyrics in a Song Increase Processing Fluency and Drives Market Success

Joseph Nunes, Andrea Ordanini & Francesca Valsesia
Journal of Consumer Psychology, forthcoming

Abstract:
The majority of music people listen to in their daily lives includes lyrics. This research documents how more repetitive songs lyrically are processed more fluently and thus adopted more broadly and quickly in the marketplace. Study 1 is a controlled laboratory experiment demonstrating how lexical repetition, a feature of the stimulus and not the consequence of repeated exposures, results in greater processing fluency. Study 2 replicates the effect utilizing custom-produced song excerpts holding everything constant except the lyrics. Utilizing data from Billboard’s Hot 100 singles chart from 1958-2012, Study 3 documents how more repetitive songs stand a greater chance of reaching #1 as opposed to lingering at the bottom of the chart. An analysis of #1 hits reveals increased repetition decreases the time it takes to reach #1 and increases the odds of debuting in the Top 40. This research chronicles the impact of processing fluency on consumer choice in the real world while demonstrating repetition as a stimulus feature matters. It also introduces a new variable to the processing fluency literature: lexical repetition.

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Computer-based personality judgments are more accurate than those made by humans

Wu Youyou, Michal Kosinski & David Stillwell
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 27 January 2015, Pages 1036–1040

Abstract:
Judging others’ personalities is an essential skill in successful social living, as personality is a key driver behind people’s interactions, behaviors, and emotions. Although accurate personality judgments stem from social-cognitive skills, developments in machine learning show that computer models can also make valid judgments. This study compares the accuracy of human and computer-based personality judgments, using a sample of 86,220 volunteers who completed a 100-item personality questionnaire. We show that (i) computer predictions based on a generic digital footprint (Facebook Likes) are more accurate (r = 0.56) than those made by the participants’ Facebook friends using a personality questionnaire (r = 0.49); (ii) computer models show higher interjudge agreement; and (iii) computer personality judgments have higher external validity when predicting life outcomes such as substance use, political attitudes, and physical health; for some outcomes, they even outperform the self-rated personality scores. Computers outpacing humans in personality judgment presents significant opportunities and challenges in the areas of psychological assessment, marketing, and privacy.

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How images and color in business plans influence venture investment screening decisions

Richard Chan & Haemin Dennis Park
Journal of Business Venturing, forthcoming

Abstract:
We explore how product images and color in business plans influence venture investment screening decisions. Because images are accessible, memorable, and influential, we argue that product images in a business plan will increase the likelihood of favorable judgments during screening decisions. Moreover, because red and blue automatically affect an individual's cognition in different manners such that red elicits negative associations and blue elicits positive ones from the evaluators, we predict that the use of red in a business plan will decrease the favorability of judgments during screening decisions, while the use of blue will increase their favorability. Using a quasi-experimental field study and a series of controlled experiments, we find partial support for a positive effect of product images on favorable screening decisions and a consistent negative effect of red on favorable screening decisions.

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Backlash against the “Big Box”: Local Small Business and Public Opinion toward Business Corporations

Benjamin Newman & John Kane
Public Opinion Quarterly, Winter 2014, Pages 984-1002

Abstract:
Political discourse often distinguishes “big” from “small” business, with the former cast as the insidious monolith of the present era and the latter as the virtuous incarnation of the average citizen’s participation in the American dream. Throughout the nation, this abstract juxtaposition of big and small business takes concrete form in the emerging dominance of large-scale corporate retail chain stores over locally owned small retail businesses. While studies have analyzed the economic and civic impact of corporate “big-box” store development, social scientists have yet to address the basic public opinion question of whether residing in local areas where retail commerce is dominated by big-box corporations activates hostility among citizens toward business corporations. Drawing upon two national surveys combined with Census data, this article demonstrates that citizens’ attitudes toward large corporate retailers, and business corporations more generally, are strongly linked to the vitality of small local retail business.

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Consumers' Response to Commercials: When the Energy Level in the Commercial Conflicts with the Media Context

Nancy Puccinelli, Keith Wilcox & Dhruv Grewal
Journal of Marketing, forthcoming

Abstract:
This research examines how media-induced consumer activation level impacts consumer response to highly energetic commercials. Over six studies, including a Hulu field experiment, consumers experiencing a deactivating emotion (e.g., sadness induced by a movie) find it more difficult to watch highly energetic commercials compared to consumers who are not experiencing a deactivating emotion. As a result, consumers experiencing a deactivating emotion are less likely to watch highly energetic commercials and recall the advertiser compared to consumers who are not experiencing a deactivating emotion. These same effects are not observed when consumers experiencing a deactivating emotion watch commercials that are moderately energetic or when consumers do not experience a deactivating emotion. These findings suggest that when advertisers run commercials in media that induces a deactivating emotion (e.g., sadness, relaxed, contentment) they should avoid running highly energetic commercials (e.g., with upbeat, enthusiastic spokespeople). Additionally, this research recommends that when advertisers are unable to determine the emotions induced by the media context they should run commercials that are moderate in energy. The results of a meta-analysis across the present studies shows that consumers experiencing a deactivating emotion will respond as much as 50% more favorably to moderately energetic commercials compared to highly energetic ones.

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Lifting the Veil: The Benefits of Cost Transparency

Bhavya Mohan, Ryan Buell & Leslie John
Harvard Working Paper, December 2014

Abstract:
A firm's costs are typically tightly-guarded secrets. However, across six laboratory experiments and a field study we identify when and why firms benefit from revealing cost information to consumers. Disclosing the variable costs associated with a product's production heightens consumers' attraction to the firm, which in turn increases purchase interest (Experiments 1-3). In fact, cost transparency has a stronger impact on purchase interest than emphasizing the firm's personal relationship with the consumer - a much more involved marketing tactic (Experiment 4). Further experiments explore boundary conditions and suggest that the benefit of cost transparency weakens as firms increase price relative to costs, and when markups are made salient (Experiments 5-6). Consistent with our lab findings, a natural experiment with an online retailer demonstrates that cost transparency improves sales. In particular, cost transparency led to a 44.0% increase in daily unit sales. This research implies that by revealing costs - typically tightly-guarded secrets - managers can potentially improve both brand attraction and sales.

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The Role and Growth of New-Car Leasing: Theory and Evidence

Justin Johnson, Henry Schneider & Michael Waldman
Journal of Law and Economics, August 2014, Pages 665-698

Abstract:
There has been substantial growth in rates of new-car leasing over the last few decades. Building on recent theoretical research, we construct a model of the leasing decision in which leasing mitigates adverse selection and reduces transaction costs, but moral hazard limits its use. In our model, the prevalence of leasing is related to new-car reliability, which suggests that the recent growth in leasing is at least partly due to improvements in new-car reliability. We use this model to derive testable implications and then conduct an empirical analysis to investigate whether the operation of the new- and used-car markets is consistent with the predictions of this theoretical approach. Our empirical results support the theoretical predictions of our model. In particular, we provide direct evidence that leasing mitigates adverse selection and that an important factor in the growth in new-car leasing rates has indeed been the growth of new-car reliability.

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Expert Opinion and Product Quality: Evidence from New York City Restaurants

Olivier Gergaud, Karl Storchmann & Vincenzo Verardi
Economic Inquiry, April 2015, Pages 812–835

Abstract:
We analyze whether consumers' quality perception and/or producer investment of New York City restaurants, measured by Zagat scores, responds to newly appearing expert opinion, measured by Michelin scores. Answering this question is of general economic interest as it applies to all markets with information asymmetries. Employing a difference-in-differences approach as well as a propensity score matching approach we find significant Michelin treatment effects on food and décor quality. Based on these changes, we find a Michelin-induced price increase of approximately 30% per Michelin star. To examine whether the improved food and nonfood quality is based on restaurant investments or is merely imagined, we analyze nonfood investments by referring to Wine Spectator wine list awards. Our analysis suggests that Michelin-reviewed restaurants are significantly more likely to invest in their wine list than others. As a result, Michelin reviewed restaurants are more likely to improve food and nonfood (esp. décor) quality leading to significant price increases. However, while restaurants that increase prices only due to décor and service improvements are more likely to go out of business, food improvements appear to secure a restaurant's survival.

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The Truth Hurts: How Customers May Lose From Honest Advertising

Praveen Kopalle & Donald Lehmann
International Journal of Research in Marketing, forthcoming

Abstract:
This paper examines the impact of competition, brand equity, and the cost of overstating quality on optimal quality and quality claims of new products. We consider two firms simultaneously introducing a new product and making one-time decisions about its quality, price, and advertised quality. Using a two period model which allows for larger weight on future period sales, we find competition often leads firms to overstate quality unless they are constrained by high legal costs imposed by regulations or third-party legal action. More interesting, when competitors are constrained to be truthful in their advertising due to legal or other costs, optimal product quality can be lower and profits can be higher.

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Sex Really Does Sell: The Recall of Sexual and Non-sexual Television Advertisements in Sexual and Non-sexual Programmes

James King, Alastair McClelland & Adrian Furnham
Applied Cognitive Psychology, forthcoming

Abstract:
The present study examined memory for advertisements as a function of both advertisement content and the contextual programme content. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: in one condition, they watched a sexual programme and in the other a non-sexual programme. Embedded within each programme were the same highly sexual and non-sexual advertisements that had been matched in pairs for five products. Memory for the advertisements and involvement in the programmes was measured. It was found that on three indices (free recall, brand recognition and prompted recall), memory for the sexual advertisements was superior to that for non-sexual advertisements. There was no effect of the programme content on advertisement recall and no relationship between programme involvement and advertisement recall. The results are discussed with reference to extant literature on memory for advertisements.

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Merchant steering of consumer payment choice: Evidence from a 2012 diary survey

Joanna Stavins & Oz Shy
Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics, April 2015, Pages 1–9

Abstract:
This paper seeks to discover whether U.S. merchants are using their recently granted freedom to offer price discounts and other incentives to steer customers to pay with methods that are less costly to merchants. Using evidence of merchant steering based on the 2012 Diary of Consumer Payment Choice, we find that only a very small fraction of transactions received a cash or debit card discount, and even fewer were subjected to a credit card surcharge. We attribute this finding in part to the merchants’ fear of alienating consumers, who may not view the steering attempts as an “acceptable norm.” Transactions at gasoline stations were more likely to receive either cash discounts or credit card surcharges than transactions in other sectors. Transactions over $20 were significantly more likely to receive a cash discount.

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Brain responses to movie-trailers predict individual preferences for movies and their population-wide commercial success

Maarten Boksem & Ale Smidts
Journal of Marketing Research, forthcoming

Abstract:
Although much progress has been made in relating brain activations to choice behaviour, evidence that neural measures could actually be useful for predicting the successfulness of marketing actions remains limited. To be of added value, neural measures should significantly increase predictive power, above and beyond conventional measures. In the present study, the authors obtained both stated preference measures and neural measures (electroencephalography; EEG) in response to advertisements for commercially released movies (i.e. movie-trailers), to probe its potential to provide insight into individual preferences in our subjects, as well as movie sales in the population at large. The results show that EEG measures (beta and gamma oscillations) provide unique information regarding individual and population-wide preference, above and beyond stated preference measures, and can thus in principle be used as a neural marker for commercial success. As such, these results provide the first evidence that EEG measures are related to real-world outcomes, and that these neural measures can significantly add to models predicting choice behaviour compared to models that include only stated preference measures.

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Spoiler Alert: Consequences of Narrative Spoilers for Dimensions of Enjoyment, Appreciation, and Transportation

Benjamin Johnson & Judith Rosenbaum
Communication Research, forthcoming

Abstract:
As suggested by the common phrase “spoiler alert!” many people avoid spoilers for narrative entertainment. However, recent research has found that exposure to spoilers may actually enhance enjoyment. The present study sought to replicate and extend those findings with a multidimensional approach to enjoyment and by examining choice of spoiled versus unspoiled narratives. Comprehension theories suggest that spoilers should improve media appreciation, whereas excitation-transfer theory suggests that spoilers harm arousal and suspense. Additionally, media users’ conventionally held beliefs imply that respondents should choose unspoiled stories. A within-subjects experiment (N = 412) tested these hypotheses. As expected, unspoiled stories were more fun and suspenseful. Surprisingly, unspoiled stories were also more moving and enjoyable in general. No effect of media choice emerged.

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Touch and Go: Merely Grasping a Product Facilitates Brand Perception and Choice

Mathias Streicher & Zachary Estes
Applied Cognitive Psychology, forthcoming

Abstract:
Consumers often touch products, and such haptic exploration can improve consumers' evaluations of the product. We tested whether cross-modal priming might contribute to this effect. Under the guise of a weight judgment task, which served as a haptic prime, we had blindfolded participants grasp familiar products (e.g., a Coca Cola bottle). We then had participants visually identify the brand name as quickly as possible (Experiments 1 and 2), list the first beverage brands that come to mind (Experiment 3), or choose between beverage brands as reward for participation (Experiment 4). Haptic exposure facilitated visual recognition of the given brand and increased participants' consideration and choice of that brand. Moreover, this haptic priming was brand specific and occurred even among participants who did not consciously identify the prime brand. These results demonstrate that haptic brand identities can facilitate recognition, consideration, and brand choice, regardless of consumers' conscious awareness of this haptic priming.

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Substitutes or Complements? Consumer Preference for Local and Organic Food Attributes

Thong Meas et al.
American Journal of Agricultural Economics, forthcoming

Abstract:
This research examines consumer preference and compares their willingness-to-pay for a host of value-added attributes of processed blackberry jam, and focuses on various organic and local production location designations. Instead of being treated as a binary attribute, three levels of USDA organic are considered: 100% organic, at least 95% organic, and made with organic ingredients (at least 70% organic). For local production, three levels are also included in the analysis: cross-state region (the Ohio Valley), state boundary (state-proud logos), as well as sub-state regions. Stated-preference data collected from a choice experiment in a mail survey in Kentucky and Ohio are used. Results from the study confirm positive willingness-to-pay for both organic and local attributes. However, consumers were willing to pay comparatively more for jam produced locally in regions smaller than the border of a state compared to organic jam. Furthermore, substitution and complementary effects between food attributes were investigated. The study found strong substitution effects between organic and local production claims, an issue that has thus far received minimal treatment in the existing literature on organic and local food willingness-to-pay studies. The results indicate a large degree of overlapping values in the willingness-to-pay for these two food attributes. In addition, the “small farm” attribute considered in the study also appears to be a substitute for organic and local attributes, which confirms the previous belief that one of the many reasons consumers purchase organic or local products is to support small or family-owned farms.

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Bowling for Dollars: Title Sponsorship of College Football Bowls

John Fizel & Chris McNeil
Journal of Sports Economics, forthcoming

Abstract:
Corporate title sponsorship of college football bowl games has proliferated over the past two decades, yet little analysis has been made concerning the returns to these investments. This article examines the impact that title sponsorships have had on the stock value of the corporate sponsors. Using event study analysis, we find that there was no significant change, on average, in the stock prices following the sponsorship announcements. However, a cross-sectional analysis of changes in firm stock prices relative to corporate and bowl characteristics reveals that markets view sponsorships by large and high-tech firms negatively and major bowls positively.

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Category Taken-for-Grantedness as a Strategic Opportunity: The Case of Light Cigarettes, 1964 to 1993

Greta Hsu & Stine Grodal
American Sociological Review, February 2015, Pages 28-62

Abstract:
Theories within organizational and economic sociology that center on market categories often equate taken-for-grantedness with increased constraint on category members’ features. In contrast, we develop a novel perspective that considers how market participants’ changing category-related attributions decrease the scrutiny of category offerings, opening up strategic opportunities for firms. We further argue that whether producers should be expected to take advantage of these opportunities depends on the extent to which they are incentivized to do so. We use the case of the light cigarette category to test this thesis. We argue and find evidence that increasing taken-for-grantedness of the light cigarette category created greater opportunity for tobacco firms to strategically manipulate category features.

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The Handmade Effect: What's Love Got to Do with It?

Christoph Fuchs, Martin Schreier & Stijn Van Osselaer
Journal of Marketing, forthcoming

Abstract:
Despite the popularity and high quality of machine-made products, handmade products have not disappeared even in many product categories where machinal production is common. We present the first systematic set of studies exploring whether and how stated production mode (handmade vs. machine-made) affects product attractiveness. Four studies provide evidence for the existence of a positive handmade effect on product attractiveness. This effect is to an important extent driven by perceptions that handmade products symbolically “contain love”. This love account is validated controlling for alternative value drivers of handmade production (mere effort, product quality, uniqueness, authenticity, pride). The handmade effect is moderated by two factors that affect the value of love. Specifically, consumers indicate stronger purchase intentions for handmade than machine-made products when buying gifts for their loved ones, but not for more distant gift recipients and pay more for handmade gifts when they are bought to convey love than when buying the best-performing product.

By KEVIN LEWIS | 09:00:00 AM


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